Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Blood Clotting Essay

Blood clot is an adaptive/defensive mechanism of the forgiving body. Its primary purpose is to prevent the loss of pedigree from the cardiovascular carcass from disgraced line of descent vessels in order to avoid shock and attainable death. This accomplished by a forge called coagulation wherein affinity change integrity at the site of injury through a complex process involving platelet aggregation and fibrin formation coupled with thrombin and a dozen former(a) clotting particularors. Though the mechanism is designed to prevent deleterious harm, clotting clear withal be harmful especially when inappropriately triggered much(prenominal) as in the case of strokes and infarctions.In the article by Cathleen Genova, she discusses the findings of a report made in the April 17th 2009 issue of Cell, a daybook from Cell fight Publication, where researchers found a possible focussing of preventing solemn clots. The discovery might offer a new agency to rubbish clot forma tion before it can even begin, accord to the researchers. match to the findings, thrombin isnt the only player in the clotting process, in fact enzymes known as matrix metalloproteases have recently emerged as historic players in platelet function and the biology of blood vessels.Two of those enzymes, MMP-1 and MMP-2 can actually sanction platelet activation early in the clotting process. If treatments were aimed at blocking the MMP1-PAR1 pathway, a new way of treating patients with acute coronary syndromes may be developed. The advantages of such treatments, the researchers predict, would be that an MMP-1 inhibitor might be ruin tolerated especially since careful balance between the risk of dangerous blood clots and the risk of bleeding must be kept in mind. deeds Cited Genova, Cathleen. How Life-Threatening Blood Clots Take Hold. medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intrnational Ltd. Accessed 23 April 2009 term http//www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/146508. php How Life-Thr eatening Blood Clots Take Hold Article Date 18 Apr 2009 000 PDT When plaques coating blood vessel walls rupture and expose collagen, platelets flood into action to form a blood clot at the damaged site.Now, a new report in the April 17th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication, reveals how those life-threatening clots a leading campaign of death in the United States, Europe and other industrialized countries reward an early grip. The discovery might offer a new way to fight clot formation before it can even begin, according to the researchers. Compared to other diseases, blood clotting has been very well understood, said Athan Kuliopulos of Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine.Nevertheless, he continued, many people noneffervescent drop off from heart attacks, ischemic stroke and death as a precede of clot formation. Drugs designed to inhibit clots through known pathways are widely used by millions. They work well, but not perfectly. The re is still an unmet need. Those drugs include aspirin and the so-called thienopyridines, including Clopidogrel (trade name Plavix). Scientists have known that a protein called thrombin plays an important role in clot formation as a potent activator of platelets. It also cuts fibrinogen into fibrin, a fibrous protein that works unneurotic with platelets to form a clot.But thrombin isnt the whole story. Enzymes known as matrix metalloproteases have recently emerged as important players in platelet function and the biology of blood vessels. Two of those enzymes, MMP-1 and MMP-2 can actually encourage platelet activation, according to earlier studies, although the means were unknown. In cancer cells too, MMP-1 activates a receptor known as PAR1 the same receptor that is also obligated for receiving the thrombin signal on human platelets. There is abundant proMMP-1 coating platelets, Kuliopulos said.We image maybe it was on the outside waiting to be activated by something. Maybe it could be involve in an early event in blood clotting, before thrombin is around. Indeed, Kuliopulos team has now connected those dots. They show that word-painting of platelets to collagen activates MMP-1, which in turn directly cut PAR1 on the develop of platelets. Collagen is the first gear thing a platelet sees when a blood vessel ruptures or is cut. The MMP-1-PAR1 pathway activates another set of molecular players known to be involved in early clot formation, he said.Those activated platelets change their shape, direct out spikes and membrane sheets. Within seconds, they become more sticky, adhering to the vessel surface and then other platelets. Moreover, they show that treatments that block the MMP1-PAR1 pathway prevent blood clots from forming in the presence of collagen, suggesting that drugs targeting this metalloprotease-receptor system could offer a new way to treat patients with acute coronary syndromes. According to the new results, PAR1 inhibitors already macro cosm tested in clinical trials might have an added benefit, Kuliopulos said.Its also possible they might work a little too well, since at that place is a careful balance between the risk of dangerous blood clots and the risk of bleeding. An MMP-1 inhibitor might be better tolerated, he said. The researchers include Vishal Trivedi, Adrienne Boire, Boris Tchernychev, Nicole C. Kaneider, Andrew J. Leger, Katie OCallaghan, Lidija Covic, and Athan Kuliopulos, of Tufts University School of Medicine, Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA. Source Cathleen Genova Cell Press

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