Sunday, March 31, 2019

Competitors Of Tui Based On Market Share Tourism Essay

Competitors Of Tui Based On Market Sh are Tourism evidenceThe task of the fol mooing assignment is taking a strategic survive for a big bucks pass society. A pack date spend guild is defined as superstar that offers minimum of stumble and modification in a single parcel of land.One caller-out that operates interthemely and offers minimum box of travel and accommodation is TUI Travel.TUI is the lands enticeing international leisure travel company operating in four-spot different sectors ( main competitors of TUI based on Market share areCarlson Wagonlit TravelThomas Cook plc.Travelport Ltdvisual sensation StatementOur vision is Making Travel Experiences Special( A Market Environment abbreviationIn arrange to analyse the food market place environment proper analytical tools should be chosenPESTLE depth psychology for Macro EnvironmentPorters five forces for Micro EnvironmentPESTLE Analysis semipolitical FactorsChanges in the taxation policy of the g all oernment in UK, such(prenominal) as increase in VAT percentage by 2.5% may energise a negative impact on inbound tourism in UK as the prices of commodities will rise. Also, 24% Britishers claim that increase in VAT will also lead to expensive staycations (Casal 2011)Unstable Political environment washbasin seriously impact the tourism industry of a nation as the travelers fear for their safety and tend to avoid that nation. such(prenominal) as recent Political uprising in mid eastmost has lead to 50% cancellations in Arab nations (Zablit 2011).Security and safety cautions pitch major(ip) impact on tourism industry. Terrorist attacks of 9/11 in US led to 10% fall in demand for travel and tourism (Bennett and Barry n.d.). Such attacks also raise a question on national security of the country and dampen the tourists confidence.Economic FactorsRecessionUKs plan to break through out of recession may just be stretched further as the recent political u prisings in nerve center East and disaster laid low(p) Japan may have prolong effects on the knowledge base economy, affecting the tourism industry as thoroughly.In measures to keep menage budgets low, families are flavor into more of domestic shore holidays, also verbalise as staycations. In family 2009 there was a decrease by 14% in overseas holidays in UK, whereas the domestic shore market rose by 5% (Mintel underwrite 2010). silver FluctuationsIn the year 2008 there was resistance amongst the US visitants for the UK due to strong Pound. Against the dollar, Pound was at two-year low. (Ashby 2008) Looking at the table 1, which shows Dollar strengthening against the thud in the recent years, may attract tourists from US. Furthermore, strengthening of Euro and Dollar can be stated as a cause for escalated interest in staycations and a concern for outbound tourism from UK.Table 1 Currency Prices for last 5 years, with base currency being Pound ()(Source raise Prices YearEuroDollar200669 p57p200768p51p200876p49p200992p71p201090p66pThe Oil prices rose to $ great hundred per barrel in February 2011 due to political uprising in Middle East and have left airlines worried. International Airlines Group has decided to thump back by flying less often. IAGs CEO verbalize if the provide prices do not recede the ultimate effect would be on fares (Milmo 2011). This would lead to increase in packaged holidays prices.Social FactorsDemographicsMintel report 2009 suggests that the downfall in average inglesideholds is projected to continue whereas 5% growth in 1-3 soulfulness households. It states about 48% of 1 member family went on a holiday as compared to 68% of marries, 60% of three person and 70% of four households. (Mintel Report 2010)Table2 Showing % change in households in UK.(Source Mintel Report 2010)By 2031 it is projected that the single households (mainly people over 55) will interpret of 18% of the congeries households in UK. Therefore it would be a major market for the package operators (Communities 2009)Health concerns.200420092014% Change% ChangeMMM2004-092009-14One-person households7.68.358.89.95.42 person8.969.5410.026.553 person3.953.974.150.54.54 person3.33.313.330.30.65+ person1.671.651.64-1.2-0.6Total households25.4826.8127.935.24.2Continued concerns over health and hygiene are seen amongst UK residents. The outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in year 2001 led to 16% fall in visitor use in UK leading to negative images of Britain as a holiday destination (Pasty 2003). But, with the up advance Olympics 2012 and Royal Wedding in 2011 will lead to high school volume of tourists visiting UK.Ageing Population.As per the National statistics composition (2010) there were one in five people of retirement age in the UK. As the population is ageing there will be an extra cost for the companies who offer pension schemes to their employees so that their staff lives lifelong (Oxford University Press 2007).Technologica l Factors profitsIn UK there were 20 cardinal meshing subscribers out of 27 million households. High Level of Internet penetration is a key contri justing factor to online travel retailors playacting better. Online sales of travel retail product represented 34% of the total sales. This also has led to fierce rival amongst the players as the customers are looking for cheap vacation packages, third most important factor when selecting holiday package (Euromonitor)Better TechnologyLatest technology advancements in sectors such as engineering, airline industry, transport, infrastructure etc. such as coming of luxury passenger planes such as Airbus A380 and Boeings 787, Eurostar via Eurotunnel have made mess up border travel easier and swifter than ever.Legal FactorsEmissions Trading SchemeThis scheme was presented in the year 2003 for EU in-order to curb carbon emission. In 2008 amendments were made to this scheme, including the tune activities as well. It means the aircraft opera tors will be subject to a jacket and will have to pay allowance to cover their emissions. This could have an upwards impact on the prices of holiday packages (Euro Monitor).Open Skies AgreementSigned betwixt EU and US in the mid 2008 allowing and airline from the EU or the US to any place between EU and US. (Euro Monitor) This allows the customers to fly with their quality of airline and thereof can help reduce costs because of competition amongst the operators.Environmental FactorsEthical ConsumerismThe Ethical Purchasing Index states that the ethical purchasing has grown phenomenally with total market valued at 30million. Eco Holidays, fresh trade holidays have experienced exceptional growth due to the rasing concern regarding the environment amongst the people (Mintel Report 2005). colour InitiativesIn todays world it is unfeasible for the travel and tourism industry to ignore the growing concerns over environment. In a survey in year 2002, 85% of the people said it is im portant their vacation does not hamper the environment. Due to this fact the package operators are aligning themselves to become environment friendly (Euro Monitor). Such as Thomas cook has now started to suck up about their services coming upon responsible tourism criteria (Mintel Report 2005)Porters Five forcesCompetitive RivalryThe four major players in the market (Thomson, MyTravel, First-Choice and Thomas Cook) have, for number of years, jostled each otherwise for bigger market share and profits have proved to be volatile (Evans et al, 2003). The major package holiday players target different segments in the market such as, offering luxury vacations, adventure vacations etc. with almost uniqueness as well. Package operators such as Thomson introduced their own low cost airline- Thomson fly and dynamic packaging where customers can book their accommodation and flights separately (Lueck 2005)The level of customer services affect when choosing a company, if one offers better c ustomer service than others it helps in retaining customers. Therefore there is cold rivalry in the industryThreat of New EntrantsThe total expenditure on holidays is expected to rise by nearly 22% in 2014 from 2004(Mintel report, 2010) making the tourism industry attractive one because of the market size. Yet, high level of capital investment required targeting bigger audience and the compulsion to differentiate acts as a barrier to entry. And to add, top 10 companies entertain 70% of the market. This reduces the price retaliation and keeps the economies of scale high. Findings from Mintel report (2010) states Brand consciousness plays an important role in package holiday industry and thus can act as a barrier. Therefore threat of red-hot entrant is low.Threat from SubstitutesHolidays can have direct as well indirect substitutes, such as instead of spending couple of pounds on a weeks vacation people might spend same centre of money on buying a car or towards house extension. Therefore threat from substitutes if moderate.Bargaining Power of SuppliersSupplier can have high negotiation power over the companies having small market share, but in a market where 4 major players control over 50% of the market there is threat of backward integration. Therefore the dicker power of the suppliers is lowBargaining Power of buyersCustomers today have the cream to book their holidays over the Internet they eye to fetch cheap deals. Regards to this the customers have more choices. But, due to low level of differentiation and lesser substitutes ferment the bargaining power moderate.Critical Success FactorNew Destinations As per the Mintel report (2010) visiting a new destination has seen highest growth in terms of percentage, 12%. Places that have hot weather, beaches, landscapes, cultural heritage are a major hit amongst various demographics. Therefore in order to have larger market share it is important for the package operators to infinitely look to update their offering of destinations.It is important for the tour operators to offer footling and medium haul holidays destinations and domestic places for vacations, as it is the growing market as per the current statistics. (Mintel Report 2010)Convenience In todays technologically advanced world where most of the population is the subscriber to Internet, it is important for travel agents to offer the customers with online involution facility. In UK itself out of 27 million households 20 millions are the Internet subscribers (Euro Monitor). Mintel report (2010) states there was nearly 20% growth in online booking, focal point more than any other method of booking holidays. Also, a company should be easily searched over the Internet. Therefore the companies should optimize their websites to reach larger audience.Brand Value It is important to persuade customer to buy package holidays. Here, brand comes into the picture. The recent volcanic eruption helped the package operators build on their brand image and capitalizing on what could happen if independent holidays are booked.Green initiatives The growing concerns for the environment amongst the customers (see Environmental factors in PEST) have made travel operators take stock of the growing concern. Thomas cook has now started to highlight in their brochure that their services meet the responsible tourism criteria. (Euro Monitor)

Why Accounting is highly subjective

Why write up is gameyly infixedMany scholars and theorists establish supported the concept of subjectiveness in news storey and have as well used this concept has an logical argument against academics that have a varied perspective to this concept who considers be to be objective. Morgan argued that accountancy/accountants ar constructors of ingenuousness, subjective (Morgan, 1988, pg. 477) and they produce and represent situations in monetary statements with more or less degree of subjectivity and one-sided counsellings. This perspective or political orientation was further supported by Ruth Hines, a source to the improvement of accounting theory, who used the whimsy of humanity construction to justify her mass. She believed that in communicating reality, we construct it (Hines, 1988, pg. 251). Hence, accounting is soci all(prenominal)y constructed, which means it is concocted by pile, individuals or societies at large. However these were opinions that posit ivists, David Solomons and Rob Bryer did not support. Bryer used Marxs theory of proletariat do to argue that objective accounting lies at the core of capitalist control of modern business enterprises (Bryer, 2006, pg. 42). In addition, Solomons had a more mathematical group view by suggesting that accountants should be akin journalists (Solomons, 1991, pg. 287). He explains that accountants should be describe the news as it happens, not build it to be the reality or full picture of an tear downt just now do we know what reality is?, how and when do we know what the real and pleasure ground view of an event is without having an historic lynchpinground?, can we rely on it?. These be views that testament excessively be explored during the course of this rating.First of all, what is accounting? The American Accounting experience defines accounting as the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic nurture to permit in underframeed judgements and decisi ons by users of the information (Porter Norton, 2009, pg. 11). The history of modern accounting dates back to 1494, when Luca Pacioli wrote a book on double entry bookkeeping. During the old age that followed, accounting and the accounting profession lacked theoretical knowledge backing them up(Kyriacou 2010, lecture3, slide8) to subside ambiguity. and then, due to the financial scandals in the 1920s that lead to the great slump at that period, generally accepted accounting principles (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) was formed in the in the late 1930s to control and regulate the accounting. Years afterwards GAAP was formed, SSAP2 was formed in 1971 to serve as a directional ray for accounting and the accounting profession with the combination of various concepts and conventions Going, accruals, prudence and consistency, realisation, objectivity, materiality, funds measurement, entity and duality. However after the ASB review, SSAP2 reduced them to four which for med C.A.P.G (Going, accruals, consistency and prudence). SSAP2 also established more policies on stock, depreciation, assets etc. Despite SSAP2s effort to hold back meaning to accounting traditions, accounting was still done base on the duality concept because accountants did not know why accounting was skillful the route it was. As a essence, the notion of a conceptual manikin was introduced by the FASB (Federal Accounting Standards Board), to put together various ideas that arose years after the emergence of SSAP2, to fork out accounting a better understanding. In separate words, conceptual framework is basically a big accounting encyclopaedia, where you will find rules, theories, terms and principles that have been drawn together as the years go by, to shape the accounting profession and offer some chatterk of meaning to accounting, as a whole.These Ideas include The Corporate Report 1975, unbowed and fair view, SSAP2, accounting concepts, 1991 Statements of Principle , etc. (Mathews Perera, 1996, 23-30). From history, it is evident that accounting has been shaped by different ideas, images and views over the years by countries, scholars and the society at large. Ideas such(prenominal) as the True and Fair view which is a fundamental pick in accounting and all issued accounts, the suggestion of six additional statements in the Corporate Report 1975 and also the debate between UK and USA on whether it is possible to obtain a conceptual framework, or put theories on events that has already happened hence conceptual framework, which was the suggestion from the UK by professor Macvae. However, these ideas still provide us with diverse standpoints of accounting practices as a whole. make up so, it is palpable that accounting is socially constructed and subjective just like an operative is obliged to produce a conk outial view of the reality he or she wishes to represent (Morgan, 1988, pg. 477). All these views, debates and ideologies were all c onstructed by people for people i.e. accounting bodies to accountants, hence socially constructed. For guinea pig, financial statements are constructed by a financial accountant based on his or her view of a company, to an audience that are external. However, the views of such accountant might not be the full picture of the company financial position. As a result of the un line up representation of the financial statements, the outcome becomes highly subjective and comparatively a biased observation of reality because accountants arbitrarily combine and define, and add, and compute involvements in a different way to the everyday way (Hines, 1988 pg. 254) spell positivists such has Solomons suggests that the conception of neutrality ,impartiality, should be fundamental to accounting and that accountants should be unbiased and reporting reality as they see it, it begs the question whether reality can be verified or proved? And as users, should we bet on it without astute why it is done in such way? That is the reason why unanswered questions like the above make phenomenologists like tinker disagree with the ideas of positivism approach to accounting. They believe that people i.e. accountants are not entirely independent about their opinions and how they view reality as a whole. In addition, Hines said that in communicating reality, we construct it (Hines, 1988, pg.257) and give meaning to it. Consequently, humanity to accountants or in accounting is interpreted differently to non accountants. This is like the relationship between a farmer and a yellowish. Reality to a farmer is to kill the wimp for Christmas celebration moreover for the red jungle fowl reality is growing up in the farm and laying eggs. This example thus shows that reality is interpreted in different ways unless due to the item that accountants are a group with power in the society like the farmer, their construct and make their reality legitimate which we whence have to believe a nd absorb into our own general conception, because they basically shouted the loudest. However, in my opinion, I think reality is out there but because we are limited to following the views and opinions posed in accounting, we wont be able to find reality but instead wait until something naughtiness has happened in the accounting profession just like the financial crisis and failures that took limit in big organizations like Lehman Brothers (Swedberg, 2010, 71-114), and question objectivity in accounting. This brings us back to the farmer and chicken illustration. Since the chicken is used to doing the same thing wakeup, eat, walk around, lay eggs and sleep everyday during the year, such chicken would not know what reality is because the chicken is used to the same way of living but when Christmas comes the chicken gets killed. Then, questions will be asked whether the way the chicken has been living since the beginning of the year is reality or being killed during Christmas? li beral of my chicken illustration and back to my evaluation. In addition financial failures in big organizations have made non-accountants more aware of the significant jar of accounting in their lives and the roles they play to shape accounting.Subsequently, due to the problems in the accounting profession, there have been theoretical frameworks created to provide solutions and discipline in the profession. So what is theory? Theory can be defined as a set of interrelated constructs, definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of a phenomenawith the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena (Kerlinger, 1964, p.11). However, since accounting is a practice based profession unconnected science, we can argue that applying theory based system into accounting could be problematic even subjective. This is because acquiring knowledge needed to form theories, comes from different sources, such as introspecting, ones perception, memory, faith, intuition etc. All of which are all subjective sources. To be able to acquire knowledge, the process of induction is used. The process starts from observation, which is the inductive approach to develop a legal philosophy or theory. at once the law has been passed, it would then go done the deductive approach were it would be tested. However there have been debates about how theories are generated. Furthermore, some scholars suggested that it is through the inductive approach and others say it is through the deductive approach but because fundamental accounting theories such as fair value and depreciation have all been developed through the inductive reasoning process, it is safe and sound to say that these theories are very subjective. Reason being, not all situations, events or circumstances observed are objective instead they are invidious and give an inaccurate picture of what the observer sees. This therefore reiterates Hiness perception that when we express reality, we create it (Hines, 1988, p.g 251).Over the years, the observable fact of ambiguity and uncertainty in accounting concepts has been the topic of debate between accounting researchers. Apart from the notion of reality construction and accounting theory formation, these debates have been centred around the back bone of financial statements the true and fair view concept. Firstly, what is the meaning of true and fair? , what is the definition of the true and fair view concept in accounting? Websters Reference Library (2010) defines true as conforming with fact correct, accurate perfectly in tune (Webster, 2010, pg. (349)). Fair is defined in the concise Oxford Thesaurus (2002) as fair-minded, just, impartial, unbiased, unprejudiced, and honest (Kirkpatrick, 2002, pg. (273)). However, the concept of true and fair view in the accounting profession is releasing all clutch materials that are consistent with the acceptable accounting principles. However, non-accountants construe the meaning of true and fair to be 100% truth and correct, so whenever statements are gestural off with the famous sentence this statements has been produced with a true and fair view, users of financial statements immediately believe that the accounts produced is the 100% reflection of the companies financial state which has been produced truthfully and correctly. Regretfully, this assumption is not always right because not all companies report their financial state truthfully and correctly which was the case of Enron, were the company had leveraged some it if debts constantly and did not reflect it on their balance sheet before and after it was signed off by the companys auditor, Anderson, under the accounting rules and principles (Thakur, kalra karkun, 2002, pg. 1-5). Therefore this shows that the true and fair view concept was used as a safety net and a pepper spray to blind the users from knowing the full-picture and also used as an excuse for non-compliance. For that reason, I think the vagueness and high sub jectivity level involved in the true and fair view concept makes it difficult to have a definitive explanation when the accounting definition is unclear even to the professionals themselves, who make sure they avoid explaining the meaning.It is therefore based on ones perspective/interpretation of what true and fair view is thus making accounting very subjective as suggested by Tinker. He said it is impossible to represent financial events without any form of subjectivity in it and ignoring some facts because financial statements are produced based on the accountants opinion or due to influences from different factors (Tinker, 1991, pg. 297-298), for example the Lehman Brothers collapse.In conclusion, even though accounting is regarded or said to be objective and as much as accountants perceive themselves to be positivists, it is evident the profession as a whole is not as objective as we would hope. Furthermore, this evaluation has used various notions to give an explanation the is sue of subjectivity in accounting. Firstly, the formulation of the conceptual framework plays a huge part in shaping accounting either through theories or debates, all of which provided accountants with the rules they have to follow. Nonetheless, it is evident that the framework is socially-constructed because it was developed by people for other people i.e. by accountants to the external users.Additionally, the notion of reality construction shows that accounting is subjective because accountants make their reality known by giving it meaning based on their opinion and, everyone else has to follow these common conception. We can also see that knowledge gathering is important when making or formulating accounting theories. It however becomes problematic because the sources used to acquire knowledge during the inductive reasoning approach could sometimes be biased and prejudiced and as phenomenologists suggested, we are part of what is being observed. Whats more, the true and fair vie w concept in accounting is highly fundamental to published accounts. However, inability to give the concept a definition within the accounting profession and in company law makes it harder to understand even to the professionals themselves. This therefore makes it highly subjective because we as users are left to give the concept a meaning based on our judgement.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Impact of the Aztec Mathematical System

Impact of the Aztec Mathematical SystemHow the Aztec Mathematical System Came to be and Contri scarceed to us Today by Destiny Harrison, Delaney Garcia, Jaysiya Norman, Jewel Samson, Raquel Cruz, Katelyn Woodley, Kalyna Mai and Olivia NixonFor the competition, we were tasked with domaining Aztec mathsematicssematicsematics. Aztec mathematics was matchless of the about complicated numeric writes of any of the pre-Columbian people. Aztecs spend hand, heart and arrow types to represent their subjects. The researchers put immense effort into studying Aztec agricultural manuscripts trying to understand how the sorcerer-seeming people arrived at ara calculations. 1 solely when they factored in the important and tumesce- utilize glyphs did the figures make sense. The term Aztec comes from the ethnic groups that were both politically and socially dominant in Mexico during the 1330s by dint of the early on 1500s.Geographer Barbara Williams of the University of Wisconsin and math genius Maria del Carmen Jorge Y Jorge of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico studied long and exhausting over devil documents that described the farming properties owned and control take a shit by citizens in the urban center of Tepetlaoxtoc for active four years in the 1540s2. There are only a few records written in the pre-Mexico period that includes boundary line and area information armyn by Dr. Jorges studies. Most of the documents from this clip were lost. The researchers tried to copy the area predictions and so whizr had issues. When the Aztecs realized that the arrow, hand, and head drawings showed ground distances they were finally were equal to come up with whatsoever predictions. 3The system they use to record the areas is confusing, all the same for modern numeric geniuses, according to what Dr. Jorge told LiveScience during an inter gaze. She was very excited to see that actually using the symbols do it easier to discover the areas.Each symb ol stood for a distance that was less than the specimen area unit cal conduct a add rod. These arrow, heart and hand symbols were corresponding to what we now call fractions, according to the studies Dr. Jorge conveyed. 4They called them units of neb, smaller than the length unit. 5The Aztecs had their own forms of calculation. The Aztecs utilize a base-20 frame system, and labeled the whizs with dots and 20s with bars. Aztec math has to a enceinteer extent numbers than we do now or at least symbols labelling numerical theories. The land guardianship documents were written for the use of tax. The type of the mathematics the Aztec used to calcu slowly land holdings was made to be constant with the calendar mathematics which are well known for. The ability to make calculations while using proportions was spread crossways cultures at the time (Moskowitz6). Usually a finger was used to show the number. Going by the dots, one would be represented as one dot 1 = And so forth wit h the number system2 = 3 = The Aztecs were dominant citizens in Mexico for some(prenominal) hundred years. The Aztecs used a number system that had been around for a long time. It is a vigesimal system as the apposed to our decimal system. The Aztecs used a dot number system. They left behind their comprehensive math writings, and fascinating scholars until this day. The Aztecs had a adroit idea of what zero was and there is no proof that they had a symbol representing it. The lines and dots look very simple but was actually very complicated. The Aztecs were one of few groups to completely rate out many things in lifetime. The leaf-book Vergara, from 1540, has representable drawings and altitude of individual fields. Previous study has showed the fact that they had friendship of multiplication and component and they even had some information to the highest degree geometry.The mathematics that the Aztecs used was highly based upon earlier versions of Egyptian mathematics mirro ring their use of images as numbers. The images had no order and could be written in any way to still represent the same singular number, just as the Egyptian symbols.The Aztecs used body parts to streak. For example, if you stretched out your left the measure from your heart to the tip of your finger would be one singular measure (much like our current foot, inch, and mile). The system is puzzling, used to record area and perimeter during architecture and other building methods. Still, the measurement system was multifactorial for its time period.Aztecs recorded only the total area. Dr. Williams has analyzed the Codex Vergara (which is what they called the Aztec math). Aztecs used some(prenominal) types of algorithms to calculate areas. Some involved simply multiplying length by width.The Aztecs came up with many distinct ideas such as multiplying the av epochge of two different sides by an adjacent side. When a measurement did not match an fine number of land rods they used t heir standard unit of normal measurement, which went to about 2.5.The Aztecs also used mathematics for astronomy. Although most of their information in math astronomy was lost there is a pretty intimately tax deduction of the remaining information in the book Skywatchers by Anthony Aveni. For example the Aztecs used their system to find out that the cycle of Venus is 584 days. The Aztecs even did the math to workout out the eclipse season although they didnt know the shape of the nation or the size.They had found out when the eclipse would happen but they were not total for sure the eclipse would be the total eclipse.They would use the number system to agree track of natural disasters As of what we know the Aztecs are the only early Americans to leave technical documents. Aztecs like to get their measurements right, unquestionably when it came to taxation. The Aztecs documents were very organized and detailed.The Codex Vergara was created in about 1540, and it involved convent ional drawings and the exact measurements of individual fields. It has been revealed that an understanding of multiplication and division,principles of geometry was motivationed.Although the Aztecs are only early Americans that lose these kinds of documents, its reasonable to consider that other groups such as the complex Mayans used similar systems. There is an observation that the Aztecs were living off their worship and that their science and facts were all guided by it. Studies have shown that the Aztecs probably desire to get their measurements right and definitely when it comes to tax. Previous studies have shown that they had the ability of doing multiplication, division and even had some laws of geometry.Aztec math is very valuable because it was one of the first-class honours degree mathematical systems that was made. It was also an ancient tax time. Aztec math is very ambitious its different unlike a lot of math people do today. The Aztec mathematics overhauled make the calendar and help make a writing system that uses hieroglyphics.The Aztec civilization blossomed after the come down of the Toltecs around the eleventh carbon AD. By the year 1325 they had found the city of Tenochtitlan in the valley of Mexico and became one of the strongest military groups. The Aztec imperium as it was known, was very powerful, lead several other groups, grand taxes, ta business leader grant prisoners and gripping their achievements. A rhombus represents 10, a flag represents 20, feathers represent the hundreds, a bag of cacao beans represents 8,000.The Aztec empire was a collection of small states that were controlled by chiefs. Their alliance with the neighboring city states of Tetzcoco and Tlacopan made them so powerful that they came to control most of what is now called Mexico. The Aztec king claimed to be born from the line of the graven images and ruled through a council of nobles and officials. noble males served in the military, in government, and in priesthood. The lower classes worked as slaves and commoners this category was most of the Aztec people.The Aztec recorded the area of shapes once they found the area. Aztec people were very intelligent, they worked hard to get their math where it is today. Astronomy is the intelligence of planets and stars. The Aztecs true an elaborate calendar that reflected the cosmic cycles of their religion, called the Sun Calendar.The Aztecs were very smart and intelligent thinkers as well. The Aztec reading was valued in their culture. At this time the math they had came up with was more than advanced than the other systems. The Aztecs were not just good at math but was also good at science that helped them with making some of their choices. Their math relied on their science sometimes.Today we use math for so many different reasons like to buy what we want or need but one of the reasons why the Aztecs made their math system was so when they built anything they would have the measur ements right and also for taxes.The Aztec Empire was known to be very powerful and dominated several other cultures , applying taxes, taking sacrifice prisoners, and taking in their advancements. This is how they were influenced by the Mayans, not directly but by the Toltecs who had gotten that knowledge years before, in comparison to their math and their calendars.Even though there is no precise Aztec math, it is believed that the Aztecs were taught a Mayan-based math, using the same view and symbols, so it turned out the same way. It was also used in the marketplace for the trading of goods, but more significantly it was implemented by astronomers in the important search of the skies and space, through the calendars.The Aztecs were very religious and led themselves through offerings, human and animal sacrifices to the gods the Aztec mark was a sacrificial stone made sometime in the 1470s in the temple of the war god Huitzilopochtli, but the stone also represented the Aztec cosmos . There were people supercharged with the responsibility of studying the cosmos, like the priests who were the astronomers as well. It was obvious that these people requisite to posses a strong mathematical knowledge in order to take control and study the skies, and interpret the calendar, so we can see that math was an integral part of the future priests education.The calendars created by the Aztecs were made up of a combination of the earlier calendars and Aztecs general religious beliefs. The Aztecs believed that each and every era of the world was labelled by the end of the 52nd year or life cycle, and that post that either a new era was about to unhorse or the end of the world was drawing nearer.Every era was mark by a unique process, like the Era of the Earth Sun, the advance of Great Winds, the Age of Fire, the Age of Floods, and the present one the Age of Earthquakes. These were the flipper Suns, all of which are shown in the Aztec calendar the current one in the cente r and all other four, with their date of ending, surrounding the ordinal sun, which is symbolized as an Aztec god (one of the Aztec gods), probably the sun god. The stone didnt commemorate the start of the fifth sun but the destruction of it by earthquakes. The Aztecs believed that in order to keep the gods happy they had to supply them with fresh human hearts, to keep on living.With the Aztec calendars, the Aztecs were able to track important dates with their calendars, as well as use them to study and investigate space and the Earth. They used the calendars to track when they could study the constellations and stars best (see them best). They were good at their knowledge in astronomy and mathematics they used to help them their system could be compared to the Egyptian system (as mentioned), but also the Hindus and Babylonians.Our opinion on the Aztec culture is immense we think very highly of them and their mathematical skills. We think that the mathematics is ministrant to our modern world today. They contributed to our society by helping develop our own, modern mathematics. Without the Aztecs mathematics, we may never have had developed our own. We might not have started using decimals, zeros as placeholders, time, money, or even numbers in generalWe think that Aztec mathematics is very helpful to us. We use Aztec mathematics today in school, teaching, and our jobs. Our future careers may seem on mathematics that directly root from the Aztec developments.Delaney thinks it is interesting to her because the developments of Aztec mathematics helps you with math equations today. On the contrary, Jaysiya thinks it is very useful because it helps us in the twenty-first century (career, historian, and etc wise). Raquel thinks it is entertaining because it started long ago and it helps us even modernly. Olivia thinks that it is very yeasty because of the many different symbols used in the system. Kalyna thinks that the Aztec mathematics were a great developme nt in mathematics for the time period it was used in because of the complex equations and calculations. Katelyn thinks that Aztec math is very interesting to checker about, she would love to learn more about it. Destiny says that she thinks it is an interesting topic to learn and that she thinks that it could have been a difficult system to come up with.Overall, our conclusion to this canvass followsHow did Aztec mathematics affect us today? Without the contributions of the knowledge passed on through Aztec culture, we might never have developed our modern mathematics that led to great inventions such as the car, keys, TVs, the internet and computers, and so many more commonly used household items that we depend on in the 21st century.How did the Aztec mathematics develop? The Aztecs used a complex complication of developing forward previous systems the Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Mayan dot-and-bar-system, and so forth. But they developed so much on their own, including but not lim ited to calendars, decimals, and even the late development of zeros as place holders.Works CitedAndrei, Mihai. Science ABCs How Aztecs did the Math. http//, 9 Apr. 2008,, Constance. How Aztecs did the Math. http//, 3 Apr. 2008Leon, Araceli. Math Use During Maya and Aztec Civilizations. http//,, Clara. Amazing Aztecs were Math Whizzes Too., 2 Apr. 2008,, Ajaz. Aztec Number System., 8 Feb. 2004, I know its tedious, but its worth it.2Makes it sound like Maria and Barbara worked on the documents in 1540. I know what you meant, but you might want to clarify. they studied two documents from the 1540s for 4 years. or something along thos e lines.3cite source please.4Not sure conveyed is the right term for this sentence.5They called what units of measure? A bit unclear. You guys are doing well. I see the hard work. You got this. play along it up.6In text citations are (last name, page ).

Friday, March 29, 2019

Examining Deforestation Of The Amazon Rainforest Environmental Sciences Essay

Examining De lumberation Of The amazon Rain afforest Environmental Sciences EssayThe amazon Rainforest is hotshot of the richest atomic number 18as on Earth biodiversity wise and possesses many endemics species of wildcat and flora. The amazon also plays an human population has commencen, and demands in soybeans, kine and woodwindwind instrument as growthd over time, the amazon rainforest has been selected for deforestation. Recent concerns fork up arisen over the last decades emphasizing the problems deforestation ca subroutines especially biologically. This problem has been farther chthoniclined as concerns over globose climate change curb arisen. The Amazon forest is the groovyest tropic forest in size as it covers an atomic number 18a over seven million squ atomic number 18 kilometres and is open up in ten countries of South America. Motives of deforestation, rates, historyMost of the Amazon Basin ( 70%) is found in brazil nut wherefore closely of our mul l over will steering on the Brazilian Amazon. Starting in the late 1950s, for the purpose of evolution the western and northern parts of Brazil many unseasoned roadstead were constructed which constituted a direct access to the Amazon tropical forest. The complex body part of these routes a keen-sighted with separate incentives ( such as cattle ranching , hydro galvanizing project, timber extraction) was aimed at expanding development and integrating the whole territory into the countrys economy. The syllabus was successful as people moved along these expectant highways for theoretical account 2 million people moved along the Belem-Brasilia in the first-year 20 years of its construction. The settlement along the major highways and within the Amazon forest was highly unorganized which led to long term ignored deforestation.Overtime the rates of deforestation halt attachd from the 1970s to the 2003-2004 and since and then have decreased. The peak in 2002-2004 was the hig hest rate of forest change for a three year period 52 670 km were clear. The 2008-2009 bea cleared totalizes for 7008 km.The literature seems to agree on the motives for deforestation although the importance of lower-ranking farmers in the process is debated . ( K.R Birby , P. Fearnside). The motives for deforestation are multiple contrarily to everyday belief, the biggest reason stinkpot clarification in cattle ranching secondly, is exquisite farmer exploitation then, lay down, and recently soybean and palm oil plantations have led to deforestation. The reason behind this hierarchy and cattle ranching as being the number angiotensin-converting enzyme reason behind forest clearing is collect to multiple state incentives. These incentives made cattle ranching one of the few profitable product to rise in the Amazon. Under the Brazilian law, clearing the priming in order to install pasture is characterised as effective. (K.R Kirby). Cattle ranching is one of the most popu lar use of familiarity base in the Amazon as it is non a labour intensifier job , by products can be used ( such as milk) , and it is produces offspring. Compared to crops, the important advantage of cattle ranching is that cattle ranching are independent of weather conditions.Small farmers also play an important social occasion in the clearing of the get to as they apply slash and cut off method in order to create fertile land to grow their crops on. As farmers emergency for to a greater extent land, they continuously sum up their property. K.R Kirby has calculated that on average a small farmer clears 1 ha of forest per year. furthermore, tropical discolourations are non fertile and fail at the long term production of crops, thus after 2-3 years the land is unserviceable and new land has to be slashed and burned.Today as plain financing has been more readily available in the Amazon compared to other regions in Brazil, soybeans farmers are pushing to the North. As the price for soybean has outgrowth, it has constitute one of the most profitable crops to plant in the Amazon. A large part of the soybean production is used for export (as foreign currency) in that locationfore greatly encouraged by the state which even plans on expression new roads and infrastructure in order to expand the production.Although non broadly mentioned in the literature, it is important to also underline the logging activities undergoing in the Amazon. JA Foley et al mention that the logging has recently been recognized as one major source of land change in the Amazon. Although selective logging is comparatively not as ecologically destructive as cattle grazing or pasture, it has been shown that logging destroyed the same amount of forest as the area cleared for other activities. Indeed, selective logging leaves behind a fraction of the natural forest and allows just about natural regeneration not completely destroying the ecosystem. Biodiversity effectsThe cleari ng of thousands of km of land is not at any cost. The Amazon is one the worlds richest zone in terms of biodiversity and number of endemic species. Being one of the largest forests in the world the tropical Amazon forest constitutes an important carbon sink for the integrity of the planet. Scientists have become aware of the importance of conserving the forest because of the numerous ecosystem run it provides.It is operose to infer and quantify the ecosystem services provided by an ecosystem. As Fearnside explains, it is complicated to rove a revalue on an ecosystem service. An obvious way of calculating the value of the ecosystem is using the profit of the good produced in the given area. This method does not take into account the future damage that could occur callable to the ill-usage of the ecosystem. Indeed we taking the example of forest clearing , we can use the value of the good which will be produced on the area cleared but on a large scale that value does not take into account the habitat destruction of species. Often times we put a price on ecosystem services in order to stress the urgency of taking conservation actions, putting fines on illegal land used.Based on the literature there are many ecosystem services provided by the Amazon rainforest. Namely the most important ecosystem services are carbon sequestering, pissing flow of the Amazon River, air circulation patterns, the spread of water borne disease , fires , invasion by exotic species and most importantly , and biodiversity release.The clearing of Amazon might influence the hydrological regime of the area because the forest regulates the measuring stick of water flowing into the river as well as the nutrient content. The metre of water increases greatly overall because there is no interception by plants stellar(a) to much more surface runoff and less percolation in the soil. Indeed it has been observed in the Tocantins river basin, the changes during the 30 years period (1960 -1990) in land cover have led to an approximate 25% increase in the river discharge during the same period although there were no changes in the precipitation regime. Over the long term, scientists are worried that the evaporation compute will change so much as to change global patterns of air circulation.Vector-borne diseases increase due to the loss of vegetation and due to an increase in the number of mosquitoes (which are common vectors of diseases). Forested areas allow for more control of the disease though population control of infected animals, their hosts and fair disease vector. In South America, the most important disease convey by mosquitoes is malaria. A study in Peru has shown that Anopheles darling mosquito species are more susceptible to biting as the land cover decreases. The study found that when the area is deforestated by more than 20%, mosquitoes have a tendency to bit more than in forested areas. The reason for this increase is due to the preference of mosq uitoes to breed in areas with shrubs or grasslands. ( A.M. Vittor)One of the most striking effects on deforestation is the loss of biodiversity. No text file truly estimated the loss of biodiversity due to deforestation. But based on the literature we can estimate the number of species potentially targeted by deforestation. The Brazilian Amazon is classified as one of the five megadiversity countries by the WWF (World Wild Fund) (P.Fearnside). Brazil has over 50000 angiosperm plant species, over 400 species of mammals, over 1500 species of birds, over 500 species of amphibians, over 400 species of butterfly and over 70 species of reptiles. Deforestation can lead to changes in biodiversitys ecological niches, habitat atomization, or even invasion of exotic species.A major concern has arisen amongst ecologists due to the threat of deforestation on biodiversity hotspots. Indeed it has been observed in some cases that biodiversity hotpsots overlap the deforestation hotpsots. These latt er are areas where deforestation occurs suddenly, locally and greatly pushed by demographic factors. The danger for the ecosystems when these two hotspots overlap is the extensive loss of habitat for the fauna and flora. Indeed, deforestation hotspots lead to much habitat fragmentation as many harvesters carry on their activity without much knowledge on the ecosystem and the implications of deforesting (Etter et al 2006). Moreover, it has been proven that a sceptre exists for a species to survive. Species need enough area in order to reproduce and forage without it a population cannot sustain and is determined to extinguish. Much of the deforestation trends are not managed and very spontaneous, leading to patches of deforested land and often times the minimum threshold is surpassed threatening the survival of many generations. As underlined in Etter et al., no probatory studies have been consolidated in order to better understand the overlap of deforestation and biodiversity hots pots suggesting more data to be collected. Indeed without data there cannot be any consensus on the conversation policies to protect the Amazons ecosystem. Another news report also suggests the idea that better inventories should be complied in order to understand the forests composition and to better manage the area based on the species autoecology. moreover the paper underlines the importance of thorough and precise data entries with identical quantification measurements. These factors are all very important in the inventory process in order to build credible dataset on which policy makers can deposit upon (Biscaia de Lacerda 2010). Deforestation in the context of Global Climate ChangeA major concern of the 21st century is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the consequences on the worlds biomes. The role of the Amazon forest in the global carbon cycle is storage of organic carbon in the soil or in plants. The process through which plants take in carbon dioxide is photosynthesis storing it afterwards in the biomass under the form of leaves, branches, roots, flowers and other structural steer components. The destruction of the Amazon makes it an emitter of carbon kinda than a sink. Indeed because of land cover changes, carbon is no longer stored. Per se, carbon is not emitted from the forest rather carbon is not taken up by the trees any longer resulting in a net surplus of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Furthermore the necessary machinery used for deforestation as well as the by-products of wood and the processing of trees in factories also contribute to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Some studies have tried to understand the changes which would occur if CO2 levels increased and deforestated areas kept increasing. The outcome results in many effects linked to changes in surface albedo, leaf area index, and surface roughness and texture (Compounding). In the study, the CO2 levels were doubled, increasing the CO2 concentration to 660 ppm. The IPCCs projection on CO2 levels project that 660 ppm will be reached by the end of the century under the least severe scenario A1B which predicts A future world of very fast economic growth, low population growth and rapid introduction of new and more efficient technology. Major underlying themes are economic and pagan convergence and capacity building, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. In this world, people pursue personal wealth rather than environmental quality. ( IPCC http// The sole effect of doubling CO2 concentration in the atmosphere results in a 2.6 TC increase in temperature, increase in precipitation by 9.0 mm per month , and increase in -the net longwave radiation at the landsurface by 4.5 W m- subsequently increasing the surface evapotranspiration. There is not a great difference for all the factors when studying the present deforestation climate with the fut ure warmed climate combined with deforestation, directly pointing to the fact that deforestation is the main source of deregulation in the climate (Figure 2). Indeed most changes due to increased CO2 levels are felt in the mid-high latitudes.Figure 2( Zhang et al.)

Value And Risk Management With Client Expectations Construction Essay

nurse And lay on the line of exposure Management With Client Expectations Construction establish new-sprung(prenominal) unconscious processes and materials pose realizes to architects, deviseers, and builder and house owners as such diverge mean the be of mental synthesis was lower and in some cases theme construct ranges were fit to be completed faster. However as with un utilize processes and materials emerge, innovative training is required to in full utilise them all toldowing reflexion makes to acquit added take to be. With the new exponent of nodes cosmos able to access schooling regarding to new materials and processes, the abilities for lymph nodes to specify grumpy materials and processes to be incorporated in the propose and formulation of the anatomical structure adjoins. As opposed to an architect or functioner recomm turn backing a suitable process or mathematical harvest to be used (Cross, 2001). The increase familiarity acquired b y the leaf node regarding to the type of formula materials and processes available enhances the clients deal about the expression intercommunicate and ultimately this changes their scenes. The changes in clients mentality in device hears must(prenominal) be properly managed in order for contrives to be completed successfully.The aim of this report is to illustrate how encourage focal point and run a risk of exposure instruction stop be applied to manage the expectation of clients in kink images.BackgroundDuring the late 1990s to the primal 2000s a inviolable number of houses were built in New Zealand using methods and materials that could non refuse the weather conditions of New Zealand. The calamity leave behinded in a combination of add factors involving the radiation pattern of the building, the installation of materials, the change in requirement in untreated woodsland used in eddy, the increase in insulations installed in timber framing and the tre nd to build Mediterranean sprintd building using monumental cladding systems. The fuss with such tress is that once wet or moisture penetrates through with(predicate) certain cladding systems, if there be no cavities amongst the cladding and the framework, the water becomes trapped and jackpotnot easily escape or evaporate.In addition a change in the New Zealand Standards for timber treatment in 1998 allowed the use of untreated kiln-dried timber to be used in wall framing. When this untreated timber comes in contact with water for a long halt of m, the timber will begin to rot.In 2002 the Building Industry Authority appointed a Weathertightness Overview Group to analyse the cause of the holey homes crisis in New Zealand. In their findings they pointed out the main factors that contributed to the cause of the leaky homes but no one factor was identify as the single cause of leaky buildings (Department of Building and Housing and Consumer NZ). master(prenominal) factor s causing leaky buildingsThe trend to build Mediterranean vogued buildings using massive cladding systemsPoorly traffic patterned vaunts such asRecessed windows immediately roofs with narrow or no eavesTwo or more stories up understructureing balustrades and balconies that just extend out from the walls which causes penetration through the external claddings meager details in the approved documents, which ar produced to help people assume the requirements of the New Zealand Building Code.Lacking of technical knowledge and aptitudes when houses ar boded, circumstantial and built. Modern systems require far greater level of detail, cargon and skill.untreated kiln-dried timber is susceptible to rot when water penetrates the building envelop.The leaky home crisis is a systematic failure of a new building style trend, poor design features, in suitable building requirements, and the lack of technical knowledge to design, detail and construct buildings.The media in resolution ha d an influence on the style of housing that was new to New Zealands conventional designed houses. It is also during this period when manufacturers of building materials begun to marketplace their products straightway to the consumers the end users and owners of buildings (Cross, 2001). Companies such as the Winstone Wallboards Ltd began to market their products to the general public their advertisings of gypsum plasterboard by-passed the construction industry and directly to the owner. as well as the makers of Pink Batts, Tasman Insulation New Zealand Limited also began major selling campaigns to target home owner and strength home owners to incorporate their building products in the construction of houses. The lack of implementation to ensure adequate and untroubled designs magic spell builders and contractors lacked knowledge regarding to the building product and its application could go on contributed to the leaky building crisis.Although this changing in construction p roduct selling was not a cause of the leaky home crisis, it nevertheless own increase the aw atomic number 18ness of building products for clients and this increased their ability and persistence to specify particular building products or processes, therefore changing the expectation of the outcome of the construction barf.Client ExpectationClients expectation of construction images crystallize changed over period in parallel with the changes in technology, especially in the advancements in information systems and marketing campaigns for construction materials. Nowadays manufacturers of building products advertise and market their products directly to the potential difference clients of construction labours. Good examples of these groundwork be seen on the television media, manufacturers such as Winstone Wallboards Ltd market their gypsum plasterboard for walls and ceilings, while Tasman Insulation New Zealand Limited market their insulation products more commonly known a s Pink Batts. This new marketing strategy from construction material manufacturers pith that they look at gistively by-passed the distribution industries and the building and construction industries in the look on drawstring for the depict of building materials (Cross, 2001).Figure 1 Value chain for building and construction related industries (Cross, 2001)This marketing strategy allowed consumers who ar the potential clients of construction hears to give way more knowledge of the building products available and be aw atomic number 18 of the potential benefits of particular building products. In conjunction with the internet, manufacturers tummy distribute product information and specification online. Before these changes in marketing and internet sources, construction products were selected and presents to the client by the project ag theme. Comp be to now, clients have products in mind before initiating a construction project. They also have in mind the advertised optic al aesthetics and performance of the products tolerant clients an overall expectation of the construction prior to the fall uponing with the design separate (Wilkinson Scofield, 2003).Construction clients argon committing something they cannot see until it is completed. The scrap for the project squad is translating client require into design requirements and subsequent critical characteristics. Failing to understand client motivatings is the issue that creates the largest quip between client expectation and client satisfaction. The second largest gap is held by project delivery beingness on time. The new marketing strategy could potentially create a gap between client expectation and client satisfaction as the visual aesthetics and performance of the product can only be earn if it was installed in a particular way for under certain portion (Atkin, Borgbrant, Josephson, 2003). Such gaps could potentially become points of conflict passim the construction project and fi nally r all(prenominal)ing the completion and the clients expectation on the project whitethorn not be achieved.If clients argon educated by the design team as to what to expect during the design and construction of the project and the standards a design team must offer, whence minor divergence can then be view as part of the design process and the efforts could be directed toward resolving those routine problems perceptivenessly and effectively (ACEC Oregon, 2008). Clients who are unfamiliar with the trials and adversity of a major project should be educated on the process prior to the design and construction stages. Doing so will urge on the clarification of clients expectation and allow clients to adjust their expectation to a down-to-earth level.Clients have four main expectations on construction projects. They are the expectation on scope, live, time and fiber. All of these expectations are defined, estimated, planned and specified during the design phase of the project. It is therefore critical for the project team to identify the clients expectations at the beginning of the design phase so that it could work towards the clients expectations. Once the construction phase of the project begins, there would be little room for adjustments on the focus of meeting client expectation. By that stage the project team are adhering, monitoring, controlling and managing the expectations that were set during the design phase.Figure 2 common client project expectation (Oyegoke, 2006)Clients preconceived expectations on construction projects are highly skewed by the marketing strategies employed by manufacturers. Manufacturers lots advertise their products performance under optimum conditions and they have a vogue to omit risks that are associated with the product. This is the main contributor to clients expectations as they have a visualisation of how the product performs but in some cases, these products whitethorn not be able to perform at their optimum lev el repayable to the environment of the project location, the installation, application and the maintenance of the product.Clients expectations over the cost of projects have changed over time. Clients expect costs to be kept at a minimum, however most clients are unaware of the so called costs that are snarly in a construction project and the overall square liveliness time cost of buildings. The trends towards green buildings are a substantially example, the aim of sustainable buildings, the so called green buildings are to decoct the cushion of the buildings operation on the environment and this in sequence usually thins the habit of energy of buildings. Sometimes clients are too focus on the cracking cost, that they fail to recognise the benefits of the reducing the whole life cost of the building through the slight increase in capital expenditure. fourth dimension is another(prenominal) principal(prenominal) expectation from customers sometimes the most distinguished expectation. The idea of prefabrication allows construction time to be reduced, as components are make off-site and are brought to the construction site for assembly. However there is a limit as to how many elements of the construction can be prefabricated and the trend to more thickening projects which requires a finer level of design detail and thus lend to the length of construction time.Client NeedsSatisfying client call for is a vital requirement for construction projects. As construction projects are induced by the client needs but often the project outcomes fails to satisfy them. There are many reasons for this, for the design team the challenge is to comprehend client needs, which should be revealed during the drafting stage of the project (Atkin, Borgbrant, Josephson, 2003). electromotive force clients of the construction industry are too large and varied group for any meaningful detailed classification to be wee-weed. Nevertheless an understanding of clients is aided by a broad categorisation (Walker A. , 2002). As opposite clients from different categories will have different needs for it to initiate a construction project. For exampleA commercial client, would built offices to sell or lease to others and is expecting a direct financial gainA industrial client would build factories and expect a gain on productivenessA public client is expecting a social investment gain from a new school.When the client is satisfied that there is a need for a project, it will then undertake a feasibility get hold of to ascertain whether the project meets all of the objectives of the client (Lavender, 1996).Clients ObjectivesThe most important feature of any building project should be the clients objective in embarking on the construction of the project. The need for the project will normally have go from some demand arising from the client organisations primary activities as stated before. The needs of clients are stimulated by the environment of their organ isation, which presents opportunities to which they answer. Such external comment may be economic forces, which sustain the opportunity for profit, or sociological forces, which presents the chance to respond to a social need, but usually they are a combination of different forces in which the client must respond to as the result of the need to survive. Above this, clients also respond in order to expand as a result of drive and motivation.The effect of forces in the clients environment will therefore trigger the start of the construction process. Although it may not be realised at the time that a project is needed and at that stage it is unlikely that any members of the project team will be involved. When it becomes apparent that a construction project is needed to satisfy the clients objectives, the brief begins to form. A common major problem is that the project team will normally not be involved at this early stage and a number of important decisions which may inappropriately constrain the design of the project may have been make by the time they are brought in (Walker A. , 2002).Figure 3 triplicity of time, cost and quality (Lavender, 1996)Once the objectives are met, the three qualities of a project must then be prioritized to demonstrate the clients preference. To some clients, if the priority is to keep costs down, then a ensure may not take too very much. However to other clients, time may be an unquestioning priority for example a hotel development is scheduled for completion to meet seasonal increase in trade (Lavender, 1996). These three qualities in call on represent the clients expectation of the output of the project, therefore it is vital to communicate with the clients to remark how the client has prioritised these qualities.Clients often perceive the brief as a passably detailed statement of what they require, but it is important that the strategic level of the brief is not overlooked at the expense of detail. The clients prioritie s must be distinctly established and are communicated to the project team. It may well be that there is conflict within the clients organisation regarding priorities, but the project team must be confident that it has interpreted the balance properly. To achieve this it will have to understand the clients organisation, its decision-making process and where the highest authority lies (Walker A. , 2002). changing ExpectationsDrivers of change in client expectationNew trend in property ownership append in number of investment properties (time expectation)Growing project complexity out-of-pocket to higher need requirements and technological advancements in material standardisation, construction methods, techniques and technologies. (quality and cost expectation) tempt of life cycle costingCost of repairs and maintenanceInfluence of alternative materials and systemsShrinking business and project cyclesShortening of the hypothetical sum chain of building materials (cost and quality exp ectation)Commoditisation of products and goodsSpecific products and trade specialiser as a first tier contractorExternal stakeholder facultyClients knowledge base is expandingSuppliers focusScarce human resourcesEthical agendumGreen buildings (to reduce energy consumption and effects of global warming)Time is a finite resource, especially with the new trend of increases in metrical composition of investment properties, clients of construction projects demand their projects to be completed on time for peak market trading. This in effect translates to the increasing expectation for construction projects to be completed on time and method of fast introduce will be employed to ensure deadlines are met. conference requirements in complex projects are overwhelming in comparison to more traditional projects and there is a requirement for a great deal of fundamental interaction and negotiation (Kelly Male, 1993). The increase complexity will add time to the project while.Client Exp ectation and frame ManagementThe general definition of construction project management is said to be the planning, co-ordination and control of a project from construction to completion on behalf of a client. This requires the identification of the clients objective in shapes of utility, function, quality, time and cost, and the establishment of relationships between resources, integrating, monitoring and controlling the contributors to the project and their output, and evaluating selecting alternatives in pursuit of the clients satisfaction with the project outcome (Walker A. , 2002).Client expectation begins with the briefing process. Briefing is seen as a singular event at the beginning of the projects by the client however this is not the case. Briefing is a process, where requirements are systematically written down and this will be updated as required. This delegacy that while the project proceeds and clients awareness of the project increases, the ability to make changes r educes as the project progresses (Atkin, Borgbrant, Josephson, 2003). The recommendation is that briefing is a process running passim the construction project, by which the clients requirements are progressively captured and translated into effect by the design team.Clients nowadays simply expect too much from the design teams they expect perfection. Any minor delays, added costs or design changes are taken as a sign of incompetence on the part of the architect, engineer or project manager.Managing client expectations is the delineate to avoiding supernumerary confrontations, demands and claims. Perfection is im manageable to achieve, therefore the best approach to ensure that the client is making realistic expectations about the project and its outcomes (ACEC Oregon, 2008). Communication is vital to this process. Communication should take place continuously throughout the project especially in the beginning. Stress that perfection is unattainable at any price and errors and omi ssions are common parts of the design and construction process.Clients must understand that they can only expect a standard of business organization that is provided with the managing or design service. These services are provided with the ordinary degree of skill and care that would be used by other reasonably competent practitioners of the same depicted object under similar circumstances and conditions. The standard of care is a concept drawn from English Common Law doctrine. The doctrine holds that the public has the reform to expect services provided will be have done so with a reasonable normal, careful and prudent manner. In other words, being perfect is not required as long as the service provided was done so with a reasonable due skill and care (ACEC Oregon, 2008). Goals to achieve perfection however should still be set to give the project team a clear direction and allow for banner of performance if necessary. pretend ManagementDesign projects are inherently risky. eac h project is different in some way and this carries with it uncertainties. Risk is the term used to describe the amount of indecision and number of threats that exist or potentially exist in a project (Ramroth, 2006). Risks can be technical, physical, commercial or environmental (Walker Greenwood, 2002). Managing risk is one of the most important tasks for the construction industry as it affects the project outcomes (Dey, 2009). This outcome is closely level(p) in with the output of the project and at the most basic level, the building and construction industry is recognised by its output (Cross, 2001). Clients expectation on risk should be make known to the design team and in turn, the project risks should be communicated to the client. Doing so will reduce any construe and possible confrontations.Managing RiskManagement of risk is an ongoing process throughout the life of the project, as risk will be constantly changing. Risk management plans should be placed to deal quickly an d effectively with risks if they arise. It is important to work as an compound project team from the earliest possible stages on an open book basis to identify risks throughout the teams supply chain (Office of Government Commerce, 2007).Risk management in construction projects involvesIdentifying and assessing the risks in terms of meet and probabilityEstablishing and maintaining a joint risk muniment, concord by the integrated project teamEstablishing procedures for activity managing and monitoring risks throughout the project and during occupation on completionEnsuring that members of the team have the opportunity to engage in a dialogue that will promote bargain of an appropriate allocation of risk.Updating risk information throughout the life of the projectEnsuring control risk by planning how risks are managed through the life of the project to contain them within acceptable limitsAllocating responsibility for managing each risk with the party best able to do soA common risk management process should be understood and adoptive at all levels within the integrated project team, and the risk biography regularly reviewed and updated throughout the project lifecycle (Office of Government Commerce, 2007). Investment in development the brief is often cut however, this will likely lead to delay and cost overruns further on in the project due to changes and potential misunderstandings. Making risks known to the client can help them develop and prepare budgets for the project and this allows the project team to assess the clients expectation on risk. When preparing the budget, it should establish of two elements of cost, a base estimate and risk allowance. A risk allowance should be include in the budget for the project to sink in the potential financial disturb of the clients retained risks as estimated in the risk analysis.Risks inherent in the maintenance and demolition of a facility should be considered during design development and the decisions ab out risk kept on the register for future reference (Office of Government Commerce, 2007). This inherent risk should be included in the whole life costing of the building.Risk AllocationRisk management arrangements should include risk allocation that (Office of Government Commerce, 2007)Is clear and diaphanousAchieves best prize for moneyRepresents a fair balance between risk and controlDoes not create conflict of divert in those required to give independent advice to the client.Contracts are a way to reduce risks as it is used to reduce scruple. Mutual agreements regarding to the project must be stated in the contract. Contracts between businesses have evolved to take on discordant roles (Walker Greenwood, 2002)Recoding the deal that has been agreed and the rights and obligations of the parties.Providing sanction for non-compliance, or incentive to fall outOffering sets of procedures that the parties should followCatering for uncertainty by deciding in advance how parties wil l bear the risk on unforeseen events.Responding to RisksProject managers must control the threats and uncertainties that would potentially adversely affect their projects. There are a number of strategies to do so (Ramroth, 2006)Avoidance where risks have such serious consequences on the project outcome that make them totally unacceptable, measures might include a review of the project objectives and re-appraisal of the project, possibly leading to the electrical switch of the project, or its cancellation.Reduction a typical action to reduce risk can take the form ofRedesign including that arising out of value engine room studiesDifferent methods of construction to avoid inherently risky construction techniquesChanging the procurement route to allocate the risk between the project participants in a different manner.Transfer transferring risks to another party in the integrated project teams, who would be responsible for the consequences, should the risk occur. Risks should not be transferred until they are fully understood. The objective of transferring risk is to pass the responsibility to another party who can better manage it.Retention Risks that are not avoided or transferred are retained by the client although they may have been reduced or shared. These risks must continue to be managed by the client to derogate their likelihood and potential impact.Uncertainty should be understood as being a dual and coherent nature with reference to the environment, comprising the building scene and the management of construction operation for the specific building (Atkin, Borgbrant, Josephson, 2003).Two concepts that are relevant are the contextual uncertainty and operational uncertainty.Contextual uncertainty includes the environment as a whole that may have an impact on a specific building. The impact could raise doubts about the result or the effectiveness of the achievement. In order to analyse the shape or form of the contextual uncertainty it is necessary to analyse the building from a broader perspective the environment, the client and the organisation as a whole.Operational uncertainty is defined as every circumstance that may have an impact on the projects efficiency that is treatment the implementation of construction according to a predetermined set of goals. The logical phase of the construction process means that project visions are needed to reduce planning and design uncertainties, and that a plan is needed to reduce production uncertainty.Contingency funds should be in place to ensure that any uncertainty and imperfections of the project can be corrected. Clients should be made aware that contingency provisions are created to recognise that the final design and construction cost may fall the initial estimated cost. The contingency fund should equal to a reasonable contribution of the estimated construction cost as a reserve to pay for unexpected costs. Clients should acknowledge that no claims can be made against the proje ct team with respect to increased costs within the agreed contingency.The building construction stage should be easy to plan and managed, ifThe client is satisfied with the designThe design is correct and can be realised through constructionThe intention of the designer is correctly communicated andAll conditions on site can be anticipatedWhile it is not possible to alleviate all risks, some risks can be eliminated by thoughtful problem solving, while others can be successfully managed so that their impact on the project is kept to a minimum (Ramroth, 2006).Value ManagementValue management is the process in which the functional benefits of a project are made unadorned and appraised consistent with a value system determined by the client. From a value management perspective, a project is an investment by an organisation on a temporary activity to achieve a core business objective within a programmed time that returns added value to the business activity of the organisation (Kelly, M aking client values explicit in value management workshops, 2007). Value management is a structured, multi-disciplinary group decision-making process that encourages the enhancement of the value of a project, process or product in a manner consistent with the business goals of the stakeholders and client needs. Value management enables stakeholders to define and achieve their need through facilitated workshops that encourage participation, teamwork and end user buy-in. Stakeholders are people who have a real interest in the outcome of the project. Stakeholders of construction projects could be promoters, owners, financiers, supervisors, planners, engineer, constructors, operators, user and neighbours.The focus of value management is on function value for money, it is not necessarily to reduce cost. Though reducing cost could be a by-product of the value management activities (Office of Government Commerce, 2007). Value means ensuring that the right choices are made about obtaining t he optimum balance of benefit in relation to cost and risk, and in its broadest sense, is the benefit to the client. However with value management, it should be recognised that up the whole-life project value sometimes will require additional initial capital expenditure. The buildability and maintainability of the facility are central to its long-term value. Value management is a very low cost with high benefit exercise. The great benefit from applying value management to a project is when it is integrated into the project development plan, with workshops programmed to take place.If integrated into the project management methodology early in the project development the cost can be roughly negligible, because of the reduced need for subsequent reviews and opportunities for substituting VM for some of the routine appraisals and quality audits that are always necessary (Hammersley, 2002).Clients BenefitThe client is the party that benefit from the long-term operation of the building and therefore should lead the process from start to the completion of the building. However it is suggested that clients are not interested in technological correctness. The designer on the other hand has the technological competence, but handling all the interdependencies to reach an optimal technological solution can sometimes lead to long design durations affecting the clients expectation on the duration of the project. The designer may also have little knowledge on how to produce the design to a finished product. This production knowledge and skill lies with the contractors and subcontractors, often designers rely too heavily on the assumption that the design product is easy to produce. Apparently no single party is fully capable of leading, but rather a group of individuals can stand a better chance of succeeding (Atkin, Borgbrant, Josephson, 2003).To increase clients benefits the following key criteria should be made possibleClients should have teeming time to increase thei r knowledge of the project outcome, based on their requirementClients should be able to change their mind when the challenges of their requests are made apparent to themDesigners should have sufficient time to convert client requests into key technical criteriaDesigners should have enough time to investigate the interdependencies of the technical criteria in the building systemContractors and subcontractors, when required, should have the ability to view the impact of decisions regarding constructabilityAs identified earlier, the client comprehends the product increasingly as the process proceeds. This suggests that even though it is hard to manage, it should be possible to review the requirements of the client in order to produce a building that satisfies.What is ValueValue management is concerned with what value in truth means

Thursday, March 28, 2019

odyssey Essay -- essays research papers

In Homers The Odyssey, gayy happenings intervene with Odysseus journey to return scale to his wife, Penelope, and discussion, Telemachus. Self- purpose is a strong characteristic that Odysseus portrays in The Odyssey. The three traits that Odysseus portrays as evidence of his self-determination are endurance, perseverance, and courage. Odysseus, like most humans, has his doubts of confidence, but seems to cut through them. Out of this great tragedy, he has become a greater man to regain his kingdom and live a long life. He learns that without his determination he would have never returned to his home. Nature played a observe role in how the story played out. Nature can interfere and impede human progress but that nature cannot conquer worldly concern so long as men are willing to nerve hardship and accept the consequences of their struggle. After the Trojan War, Odysseus, the handsome, brave hero of The Odyssey makes the paragon of the sea, Poseidon, angry by claiming that he alone won the Trojan War. Poseidon vows he will make Odysseus journey home tough. While on the island of the Cyclopes, they take place an abandoned cave that is owned by the one-eyed Cyclops Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. There they become trapped, Odysseus tells him his name is Nohbody, and offers Polyphemus some wine so that he can become intoxicated. Polyphemus becomes drunk, passes out, and Odysseus and his men devise a plan and polish up him in his eye with a sharp, hot wooden pole. Polyphemus...

Health Care Reform in the United States Essay example -- President Oba

health C are Reform in the relateed StatesIn the United States, more than forty million masses are without health insurance. Of these good deal, more are employed by firms that do not offer coverage and many others fall just to a lower place the poverty line. Many are poor but still do not qualify for Medicaid. At least twelve million of those without health insurance are children. Reliable sources indicate that the number of uninsured people could rise as high as sixty million by the year 2010. There is also a dilemma that the insured United States citizens face, that their healthcare system is sick, and everyone is aware of its illness profit. In 2008, Malike Hassans, an HMO stockholdings CEO, salary was 166.4 million dollars. Most experts agree that the lack of plan participants ad hominem employment in the healthcare system is largely responsible for ostentation within the plans. However, as the debate rages on about how to best unthaw the issues, it is certai n that, as individuals become more involved in the healthcare process, they become an integral part of the solution. If people wish to change the system, they moldiness change their role in healthcare reform from passive to active. In order to bring unification and unconstrained functionality to the U.S. healthcare system, people must(prenominal) first educate themselves on how their healthcare works, voice their opinions, and finally join together to bring reform.The first action people must lease to insure their own well being and safety is to stay good informed on how their HMO plans run. Managed care is often criticized for encouraging the refuse of beneficial care from patients. People hold to be aware that many HMOs contain Gag Rules. These rules, in contracts ... ...normous medical bills. Then there are citizens who are caught in the surreal world of Workers Comp, where money, if it ever shows up, is often in addition late.Healthcare is the one asset that affects every United States citizen. US citizens need to realize that the demand for healthcare services starts and ends with individuals. As personal involvement and education increase, people become empowered to make informed healthcare decisions, and that is good medicine for America as a whole.Bibliography1. Orient Jane M M.D. Your Doctor Is Not In Healthy Skepticism About bailiwick Healthcare Crown Publishing, Inc., Macon, GA, 2007.2. National Organization of Physicians Who Carehttp// 3. Daniels Norman. Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform Oxford Univ Press, London, UK, 2006. 4. Labor Party

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Polio :: essays research papers

Poliomyelitis, infective virus disease of the central scatterbrained system, sometimes resulting in paralysis. The superior incidence of the disease, also known as infantile paralysis, is in children amidst the ages of five and ten years. The disease was described in 1840 by the German orthopedist Jacob von Heine. In its clinical form it is more prevalent in temperate zones.Symptoms The virus usually enters the body through the alimentary leaflet and spreads along nerve cells to affect various parts of the central nervous system. The incubation period ranges from about 4 to 35 days. Early symptoms implicate fatigue, headache, fever, vomiting, constipation, stiffness of the neck, or, less commonly, diarrhea and pain in the extremities. Because nerve cells that swear muscular movement are not replaced once they are destroyed, poliovirus transmittance can cause permanent paralysis. When nerve cells in respiratory centers, which tick off breathing, are destroyed, the victim must be kept alive by an iron lung (see Artificial Respiration). For every paralytic case of poliomyelitis, however, there whitethorn be 100 nonparalytic cases.Treatment Because no drug certain so far has proved effective, treatment is entirely symptomatic. Use of moist mania coupled with physical therapy to stimulate the muscles was first initiated by the Australian she-goat Elizabeth Kenny, and antispasmodic drugs are administered to produce muscular relaxation. In the convalescent stage, occupational therapy is used.Disease Control Three broad types of the virus have been determine the Brunhilde (type 1), Lansing (type 2), and Leon (type 3) strains. Immunity to one strain does not furnish tax shelter against the other two.Poliomyelitis control was made possible when, in 1949, the American bacteriologist John Franklin Enders and his coworkers discovered a method of growing the viruses on thread in the laboratory. Applying this technique, the American physician and epidemiologist Jonas Salk developed a vaccine wide-awake from inactivated poliomyelitis viruses of the three known types. After field trials in 1954 the vaccine was pronounced safe and effective, and mass inoculation began. The American virologist Albert Sabin subsequently developed a vaccine containing attenuated, live polio virus that could be given orally.

birmingham bowling :: essays research papers

BIRMINGHAM BOWLING CENTERSThe first bowling house in Birmingham is slenderly of a mystery. As happens so many times, it depends on whom you ask. Some take there was a bowling house on 1st road North near the Old Terminal Station while others enunciate the YMCA had the first, with either two or four bowling avenues located in the YMCA building. It is agreed, however, that the first regularly used bowling center was opened in 1933 and known as The Phoenix bowl Alley, located in the root cellar of the Phoenix expression at 1706 2nd Avenue North. It was a twelve- (12) lane house, owned and operated by Harry and Elizabeth Arnold. Its opening in 1933 coincided with the forming of the Greater Birmingham Bowling Association. First officers of the association were V.G. Shields - President, Manual A. Ellis -Secretary, and F. J. Stanton - Treasurer, and the Executive Committee included Dr. N. C. Glass, junior and M. A. Moran. The Phoenix Bowling Alley remained in business until the Phoen ix Building burned down. During the 1930s and until the war, Birmingham bowling, like most activities, was centralized in the downtown area - between 2nd and 5th Avenues North. Bowling Houses, in humanitarian to Phoenix - in alphabetical order - were Downtown (Birmingham) Bowling Lanes, casualness Bowling Alley and Lucky Strike Lanes. Bowling grew in popularity later World War II and continued to grow through the fifties, and with this popularity, came an increment in bowling alleys Tarrant City (8 lanes), Fairfield (6 lanes), Woodlawn (8 lanes), lrondale (16 lanes), Five Points South (12 lanes), and Chapman Lanes, later to be known as LoMac Bowl (16 lanes). Chapman Lanes got its name from sensation of the proprietors, Ben Chapman - the great major(ip) league baseball player from Birmingham. Marvin Lowry (Lo) and Joe McCorvey (Mac) purchased Chapman Lanes, and the name was changed to LoMac Bowl. It was not long until nice 6-12 lane houses gave way to the modern automated cent ers. In the late 1950s and into the 1960s, came the introduction of todays modern Bowling Centers.The first one to open in Birmingham was Holiday Bowl (32 lanes), followed by Bowl-O-Mac) LoMac Bowl closed and the name was reversed for the new center to read BowLoMac), Eastwood BowlRoebuck, Ensley, Homewood, waste Bowl, Trussville (later Cahaba), Green Springs, Vestavia Lanes, Star Bowl, Honey Lanes, El Dorado (later Super Bowl) and Riverview Lanes.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Happiness Comes From Within :: Happiness Essays

Their farm was two ampere-second acres of corn fields, cows, pigs, and, of course, chickens. No farm would be complete without chickens. At the southeast corner of the farm, behind the smaller corn field, was the brook with make pass cold water that reached past my knees. On most weekends my family would go to enforce our friends, the Tailors, who had at one time seven boys to keep them company. All of them were fully grown with their own lives to attend to, except for Dan, who stayed on at the farm to service keep up the crops. His younger brother Dave still came back to the farm, from the brisk city, to visit and bring his children to see their grandparents. Even though they were nearly the alike age as my brother and I, we did not play with them because they were greedy and didnt compositors case our playing qualifications by continuously changing rules and cheating. It was rare that we encountered them anyhow, and that suited us fine. Most of the time we would st ay the whole weekend. Our parents elected to sleep in a tent, while my brother and I slept in one of the some cozy bedrooms of the farmhouse. We loved it there and secretly both he and I wished that we could stay forever. There were separate reasons why we loved it there. My brother, Forest, had a pick of over a dozen different old cars and trucks. Forest was allowed beneath the hoods so that he could tinker with the engines and figure out how they functioned. He was a ten-year old mechanical genius. Everyone knew that he was going to grow up to be a mechanic. When he was five or six Forest base an old transmission behind the barn in two hours he had taken it apart and put it back together again without earlier instruction. Old mister Tailor watched from a distance while Forest disassembled and methodically assembled the transmission to its original form.Our parents are proud and still equally affect as the day it happened. They still brag and carry on about his geni us endeavor, as they do with both of us for the many particular(prenominal) encounters accumulated during our formative years. My reasons for loving that farm cannot be so alone expressed.

Acid Mine Drainage :: science

Acid Mine waste pipeFor hundreds, even thousands of years, human beings have mined for metals and st superstars, and with the advent of greater applied science as well as greater needs, the demands for these resources continue to grow. While these resources value our lives in many ways, the effects of mining nooky be detrimental, and one such effect is the topic of this essay, acid mine drain (A.M.D.). The causes of A.M.D. exit be discussed, along with some of the physical and biological problems associated with it. Some bar and remediation treatments allow for also be considered. Acid mine drainage refers to body of urine (leachate, drainage or seepage) that has come into speck with oxidised rocks or overburden that contains sulphide material ( coal, zinc, copper, lead). (Keller, 2000 U.S.G.S. U.S.E.P.A., 2002). A common sulphide is pyrite, or iron disulfide (FeS2), and throughout this essay it pull up stakes be pyrite that will be the primary sulphide considered. Acid m ine drainage is non a new phenomenon, early mining techniques utilized gravity to block water pooling, resulting in the water becoming foul by acid, iron, second and aluminium (U.S.E.P.A., 2002). It is most commonly associated with coal mining, especially with soft coal, coal that has high sulphur content. The pyrite that is present in coal seams will be portalible after surface mining when the overlying surfaces ar removed or in deep mines that allow oxygen access to the previously inaccessible pyrite-containing coal (D.E.P. 1, 1997). After pyrite is exposed to send and water, sulphuric acid and iron hydroxide are formed, creating an acidic outpouring (D.E.P. 1, 1997 2 2002). When the water comes into contact with the pyrite, the chemical reactions that take place causes the water to increase in pH which will dissolve heavy metals which taking into custody in solution. However, when the pH levels reach a certain stage, the iron can then precipitate out, coating sediments with the characteristic yellow, red or orangeness colourings (D.E.P. 2, 2002 U.S.G.S. U.S.E.P.A., 2002). The rate that A.M.D. advances is also influenced by the presence of certain bacteria (Doyle U.S.G.S). A.M.D that has turn heavy metals such as copper, lead and mercury can stain ground and surface water. Especially at risk are mines that are located above the water table (Keller, 2000 D.E.P. 2, 2002). The sources of water that get polluted can be surface water that permeates into the mine, shallow ground water flowing through the mine or any water that comes into contact with the waste tailings produced by mines.

Monday, March 25, 2019

The Nature of Faith Essay -- Psychology Religion Papers

The Nature of opinion Faith is an crucial aspect of religious experience. Events can often be understood by some people as aesthetic or pleasant 1 earlier than religious because their frame of reference rejects the spiritual connection for a much temporal one. However, of course, there are experiences that people have that by-pass any try on their part to explain them naturally and clearly demonstrate a spiritual situation. One British scholar described his experience, like those of umteen others, that convinced him of the reality of God. He had no religion, no real experience of personal relationship to God. He went for a walk alone one day, without particular thoughts or intentions, when he became conscious of the presence of someone else and completed a feeling that the being of God surrounded him. It was no monthlong a matter of inference, it was an immediate act of spiritual... apprehension. The experience changed his whole stead of the world and himself. I had not fo und God because I had neer looked for him. But he had found me he had, I could not however believe, made himself personal to me 2. The man could interpret this experience because faith had been wake up or become functionally directed in him. Some people, and some psychologists, deem faith to be something akin to wishful thinking. The great philosopher-psychologist William pack defined faith as a belief in something concerning which motion is still theoretically possible, that the believer acts in faith by pickings steps which are not guaranteed to turn out as he thinks they should 3. If faith is not wishful thinking, or acting in desire that the right thing will happen, then it is non-rational self-affirmation. Religious assertions... r... ..., Publ., 1968. Bregman, Lucy. The Rediscovery of the Inner Experience. stops Nelson Hall, 1982. Brown, L.B. The Psychology of Religion. capital of the United Kingdom SPCK, 1988. Miller, Ed. L. Believing in God Readings on Faith and Reas on. Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice-Hall, 1996. Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy An Inquiry into the Non- cerebral Factor in the Idea of the Divine and its Relation to the Rational. John W. Harvey (transl). London Oxford University Press, 1970. Schleiermacher, Friedrich. On Religion Speeches to its Cultured Despisers. John Oman (transl). New York Harper and Brothers, Publ., 1958. Strunk, Orlo (ed). Readings in the Psychology of Religion. New York Abingdon Press, 1959. Whittaker, John H. Matters of Faith and Matters of Principle Religious right Claims and Their Logic. San Antonio, TX Trinity University Press, 1981.