Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Topic is a case study of the hacking of Sony Playstation that occurred Term Paper

Topic is a case study of the hacking of Sony Playstation that occurred in April 2011 - Term Paper Example The personal details that the hackers took if traded on via online black-markets rendered a likely value of ?100 million. The hit upon the Sony PlayStation System was aided by the absence of a unsystematic digit in the set of rules employed by the system security therein. This eventually permitted the clandestine key employed for the fortification of digitized content on the network to be located. Sony made a critical mistake. The safety systems in position inside the Sony correspondingly left a lot to be anticipated. The establishment failed to safeguard the systems via firewalls. Use of web applications that were archaic made Sony sites appealing victims for hacking pursuit. Outmoded Apache versions for the Web server were operational besides no patches had been applied on the PlayStation system. Lack of a firewall operating on the PlayStation system servers could have prompted ease of hackers to break into Sony’s system. The other reason as to why the breach took place was that there existed problems at the board level inside Sony Corporation. There was structural intricacy and a deficiency of ample backing for safekeeping. It is unknown, precisely what safety precautions Sony had in position prior to the infringement. Nonetheless, structural complacency correspondingly played a role during the PlayStation System hits. ... computer websites and networks are typically so well secured such that even the best advanced hacker habitually has to devote hours attempting to get a pathway in past the safety measures. A greatly easier victim is the comparatively latest technologies for instance; gaming devices for example, the Sony PlayStation, tablet PCs, and mobile phones. These machineries do not possess identical level of defense as the ordinary PC networks applying protected networks and firewalls. Sony necessitates little overview as one of the globe leading digital showbiz brands, along with a huge collection of hypermedia content. A significant emphasis for Sony is its division of gaming, Sony Computer Showbiz, a key video game establishment focusing in a multiplicity of parts in the industry of video game. The PSN (PlayStation Network) is a wired multiplayer gaming digital channel delivery service and to utilize the service, customers must create accounts. The recent concerns with the PlayStation System , in which thousands of accounts were broken into, is an indication that hackers are attempting, and succeeding in hacking and stealing personal information from hundreds of paying clients. The security was so lapse such that the single way Sony could avoid the glitch from reoccurring eventually was to shut down the gaming system for a number of weeks. As indicated on June 6, 2011 by New York Times, Sony would possibly take ages to repair their safety issues for the servers, website and database in the Sony substructure. In contrast to Microsoft, a corporation, which has had ages in the manner of improving safety, Sony is very overdue concerning safety of their fundamental services. Analysis Sony was taken on in several of areas, together with their website, gaming and network platform.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Cats Are Better Then Dogs Essay Example for Free

Cats Are Better Then Dogs Essay All of my childhood, I grew up with dogs.† A dog is man’s best friend.† That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend companionship people enjoy. For many people including myself a cat is their best friend. It wasn’t until I got my first cat that I realized how much better of a pet they are then dogs. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets as they are good companions, they are more civilized, and they are much easier to care for. First of all, many people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are really affectionate. They will snuggle up and beg to be petted or scratch under their chin; as a result the cat will instantly start purring. Who can resist a purring cat? If they are not feeling affectionate cats are generally quite playful. They love to chase balls and feathers, or just about anything that dangles from a string. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are involved with game. Not to mention, cats are so much more independent. They can disappear for hours, having their own little adventures, and then pop up again just when you least expect it. Its like running into a long-lost friend on the street, but in your house. Also, it has been said that cats cannot be trained. I have a personally found this false and found that using rewards and punishments just like with a dog; in fact, a cat also can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Cats can and will even play fetch! Next, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. I have never once heard of neighbors complaining about my cat’s loud meows; in fact, most cats dont even meow very often. They do not feel a need to share their opinions with everyone around them they keep quit and do not bother with meowing at strangers. If a friend or relative enters your house your cat will keep to himself. They generally tend to lead a quiet existence. The only time cats tend to make noise is when they need to be feed or watered. For example, if a dog is hungry he will not let you know he simply expects the owner to remember and if the owner accidentally forgets the dog will go hungry. Cats, on the other hand, will meow and purr constantly until their owner finally has enough and remembers that they have to feed their cat. Cats also dont often have accidents or if any. Mother cats train their kittens to use the litter box, and most cats will use it without fail from that time on. Even stray cats usually understand the concept when shown the box and will use it regularly. Cats do have claws and have been known to claw furniture; however, this is preventable with a scratch post, a scratch pad, or last resort the declawing of the cat. With these actions of owner the furniture will be left alone. Finally, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats dont need anyone to get up in the middle of the night or in the wee hours of the morning to walk them. With a cat, owners have no need to leave their warm beds in 12 degree weather or heavy rain storms to take the cat for a walk and they do their business in the litter box. Owners find a great conveyance to cleaning the litter box as it is a quick, painless procedure. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances cats clean themselves. Cats do not require baths due to the fact that cats clean themselves. For example, let’s say an individual has a busy day and when they come home and notice their dog smells horrific however they do not have time to bathe the dog so the individual is stuck with a smelly dog all day running around their house. Cats will simply lick themselves clean and do not do much to get smelly. Cats are more particular about personal cleanliness than what a lot of people are. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear of a stinky present on the expensive rug, or leave a puddle pee in the hallway. Unlike some pets (Dogs), most cats will not destroy the furnishings, or rip up the trash when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return. I could go on all day about how great cats are and anyone with sense can see that theyre simply the better pet, hands down. So, in conclusion, cats are clearly low maintenance, very civilized companions and self dependent. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal house pet.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Physics of Bicycles :: physics bicycle bike cycle

The Physics of Bicycles 1 Spokes Even the earliest bicycles used spokes of one sort or another. In fact, even in ancient times many chariots and animal-drawn carts used spokes. A spoked wheel can be made as strong as a solid one and have only a fraction of the weight.While early spoked wheels were almost always made out of wood, the bicycle wheels and spokes of today are made out steel or aluminum or occasionally more exotic materials such as carbon composite or ceramics. Minimizing the weight of the wheels is extremely important in bicycle design. Why does weight matter? Each time you push the pedals, you have to accelerate the weight of the wheel both forward and around its center. In other words, the wheel undergoes angular and straight motion simultaneously. You can see this when you ride--the front tire of your bicycle rotates while it moves forward along with you and the bike. Tangential & Radial Spokes There are many different ways to spoke a bicycle wheel. Most bicycles have tangential spokes, meaning that the spokes do not connect from the hub to the rim in a straight line, but at an angle. There are many different patterns of tangential spokes. Occasionally bicycles will have completely radial spokes. These spokes go straight from the hub to the rim of the tire. Wheels typically have tangential spokes. The way in which the wheels are spoked determines how they will perform. You can spoke the front wheel completely radially, but the rear wheel had better not be spoked radially. There is no way to convey the twist of the wheel out to the rim to drive you forward. Tangential spoking helps transmit the torque from the hub out to the tires. Not only would a radially spoked rear wheel be less efficient than one spoked tangentially--it would be significantly weaker. A bicycle wheel needs to be able to handle a variety of forces. Besides holding up the weight of the cyclist, a wheel must withstand the forces of pedaling and braking and the jarring effects of the road surface. The benefit of radial spoking has to do with the stiffness of the wheel (less deformation makes the wheel slightly more efficient). The Physics of Bicycles 2

Thursday, October 24, 2019

business :: essays research papers

I. Executive Summary Accents will be formed as a consignment company specializing in the resale of high quality used furniture in the consignment market. Its founders are former managers of retail services, personal finance, and brand allocation, all in the retail industry. They are founding Accents to capitalize on a service they offer in a virtually untapped market. Accents offers reliable, high quality furniture and appliance to college students for apartments, dorm rooms, on a discount scale. A true alternative to traditional furniture stores, Accents offers a high level of practicality, convience, and know-how. Customer must know that shopping at Accents is a more relaxed, and inexpressive way to furnish their new homes, apartments, and offices. Accents must also be able to maintain financial balance, through creative pricing, while delivering a higher value to its clients. Initial focus will be development in the college market, or for other persons in the Kalamazoo market. 1. 3 Keys to Success *Ex cellence in fulfilling the promise completely confidential, reliable, trustworthy expertise and information. *Developing visibility to generate new business leads. *Leveraging from a single pool of expertise into multiple revenue generation opportunities: retainer consulting, project consulting, market research, and market research published reports. 2. 0 Company Summary Progressive Consulting is a new company providing high-level expertise in international high-tech business development, channel development, distribution strategies, and marketing of high tech products. It will focus initially on providing two kinds of international triangles: *Providing United States clients with development for European and Latin American markets. *Providing European clients with development for the United States and Latin American markets. As it grows it will take on people and consulting work in related markets, such as the rest of Latin America, and the Far East, and similar markets. As it grow s it will look for additional leverage by taking brokerage positions and representation positions to create percentage holdings in product results.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Project Communications Plan

Critical Thinking – Module 2 Project Management November 11, 2012 Project Communications Plan The three websites that I researched for this critical thinking assignment were: 1) Colorado. gov; 2) Dot. ca. gov and 3) interop. mt. gov. The topic that was most similarly discussed was the importance of implementing a communication plan both internally and externally in any type of project management. Colorado. ov noted that â€Å"28% of projects fail due to poor communications, that’s 1 out of 4 projects fail due to poor communications† (Jones, 2007). This site went on to speak about the top reasons projects fail includes poor communication, insufficient resource planning, unrealistic schedules and poor project requirements. The California Department of Transportation website noted that project communication includes general communication between team members but is more encompassing. It utilizes a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a framework of communication that is customer and product focused with the end in mind, and it involves all levels of the organization† (Office of Project Management Process Improvement, 2007). This organization also believes that Project Communication is the responsibility of everyone on the project team. The Interoperability Governing Board for Montana’s communications planning first determines the information and communications needs of the stakeholders.This includes identifying who needs what information, when they should receive it, and how it will be provided. Identifying the information needs of the stakeholders and determining a suitable means of meeting those needs is an important factor for project success. â€Å"Actively managing stakeholders increases the likelihood that the project will not veer off track due to unresolved stakeholder issues, enhances the ability of persons to operate synergistically, and limits disruptions during the project† (Northrop Grumman Corporation, 2007).The main subject of all these sites I researched came down to the importance of effective communication, and stating that it is the most important ingredient for project success. Participation, understanding, and the ability to adapt the project – all of which require well? functioning communication ? are critical to the end result of the project. Build a Management-driven Communication Culture Internal communication planning is one of the most neglected areas of strategic planning.Most companies spend a great deal of money and effort on their external communication plan but fail to expend any energy toward creating an organized plan for internal communication (Roehler, 2007). Determining what should be communicated to staff, when it should be communicated, and how it should be communicated is often left up to the decision of individuals made when there seems to be a need. In other words internal communication strategies are developed, reactively, when there is a crisis or major event that clearly requires addressing communication issues.Where communication is planned out, it is often around upheavals like major corporate or organization change, layoffs and downsizing, and technological change. However, once the initiating focus has been eliminated communication tends to go back to an unorganized jumbled process (Bacal, 2008). It is a bit of a mystery why this occurs, but there is no question that strategic internal communication planning can be a proactive approach to building a better, more directed and efficient workforce.Communication is a key component in coordinating and tracking project schedules, issues, and action items. The plan maps out the flow of information to different stakeholders and becomes an integral part of the overall project plan (Gray & Larson, 2011). Implementing a well thought out communications plan will help manage expectations regarding the project, ensure methods used for communication will be most effective, and assure approp riate levels of communication with internal and external project stakeholders.In addition, well laid out communication plans provide relevant, accurate, consistent information at all times, and most importantly, generate and sustain enthusiasm and support for the project. References Bacal, R. (2008). Internal communication strategies. Performance Management and Appraisal Help Center. Retrieved from http://www. prpundit. com/knowledge/employee%20communications/Internal%20Communications. pdf Gray, C. F. , & Larson, E. W. (2011). Project management: The managerial process (5th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN-13:

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom Criminal Justice System and Racial Discrimination

buy custom Criminal Justice System and Racial Discrimination Crime and Racism Abstract Criminal justice should be based on moral and ethical values and norms. One cannot build a perfect criminal justice system without respect of police officers to each other and to people who surround them no matter of what race they are. At the present time, there exists such problem as racism when police officers accuse African Americans of crimes even if they are not guilty. This research paper reveals the issue of racism and inequality in the criminal justice system. This paper shows two approaches to this problem. The first one states that there is no racism in criminal justice system; and the second approach supports the presence of racism in criminal justice system. This research paper shows the imperfectness of the criminal justice system and the main causes of racism in criminal justice. This paper is devoted to the description of the moral, ethical social, political and economic factors that influence the existence of racism in criminal justice system. Key Words: the criminal justice system, racism, police officers, race.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Essay on Design part 2

Essay on Design part 2 Essay on Design part 2 Essay on Design part 2Essay on Design part  1On the other hand, Fiat has a considerable experience of creating and maintaining exclusive brands, such as Ferrari or Maseratti. In such a way, the company can develop the effective marketing strategy to enhance its competitive position in the market. The company can rely on its own resources to develop the brand of Chrysler in the new business environment (Breneman Taylor, 2006). The development of the new brand image is essential to revive the interest of customers to the brand. The experience of Fiat in the creation and the maintenance of its brand can be helpful and effective taking into consideration the success of other brands promoted by the company, including Ferrari and Maseratti. Therefore, the company can develop the effective brand but Fiat should develop a long-run branding plan and strategy to revive Chrysler.The current marketing materialAt the moment, Chrysler faces considerable difficulties because the company and its brand is in decline after the economic recession of 2008 (Newel, 2011). In such a way, the company faces the problem of the ongoing deterioration of the marketing performance of the company leads to the steady decline of the brand image because the company cannot maintain its brand image without the effective funding and introduction of new products and innovations (Gwynn, 2004). In such a way, the company faces considerable problems with revival of its brand. In this regard, Chrysler relies heavily on Fiat. Fiat has retained the brand name and agrees to revive the brand and enhance the position of Chrysler in the US market. In such a situation, the position of the company in the US market depends on the branding strategy. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that the company can use the full potential of its brand and revive its popularity investing into the aggressive promotional campaign, which though should be backed up by consistent changes in the production process, including the introduction of innovations and developing a new marketing strategy to reach the tremendous success in the market.Identification of target audiencesIn this regard, the target audience of the new brand is very important to determine since the branding focuses on the specific target customer group. The company can focus on the younger customer group taking into consideration the general marketing strategy of Fiat which is traditionally oriented on the younger customer group. In this regard, Chrysler may focus on the younger customer group to sell its products. The focus on the younger customers can help to improve its brand image and increase sales because, at the moment, Chrysler manufactures Fiat vehicles oriented on the younger customer group.Identification of competitorsThe major rivals of the company are traditional, GM and Ford (Viadrot, 2005). At the same time, the revival of the brand of Chrysler will shift the target audience of the customer from the family car segment to the younger customer group that means that the revived brand is likely to start competing not only with its traditional rivals, including GM and Ford but also with new rivals, including European companies, such Seat, Japanese brands, like Nissan or Toyota, and others, which are oriented on the large customer group, including the youth (Pine Gilmore, 2009).The design elements of the brand communications and their impact on the positioning of the brand to specific markets and audiencesThe brand communications should be accurate and concise. The brand design should reach the target customer group precisely. In this regard, the revived brand should be eye-catching, original, and dynamic. Therefore, Chrysler should refuse from its classical, traditional brand image and introduce a more dynamic one that could become more attractive for young customers. For instance, the current logo of the company is too proportional, graphically correct and accurate. Instead, the new brand im age should develop a more dynamic logoThe brand’s sustainability in its marketplaceThe brand’s sustainability is very important for the survival of Chrysler in the market, especially in the car manufacturing industry. In this regard, Chrysler should consider the possibility of developing new vehicles using alternative fuels along with fuel-efficient vehicles which are attractive to the younger customer group. Young people are concerned with both environment friendliness of their cars and their fuel efficiency because fuel efficiency saves their money, while the youth is normally concerned with saving money on fuel (Mohrman, 2008). In such a situation, the new brand of Chrysler should be fuel-efficient one that can enhance consistently the position of the company in the market and Fiat can help Chrysler in this field using its experience and technology of developing fuel-efficient vehicles.Conclusion: the next five years for the brandIn the nearest future, Chrysler will have to invest abundantly into the revival of its brand but the brand revival should accompanied by technological changes and innovations. For instance, the company can launch a new fuel-efficient car and make it a new generation car representing a new or revived Chrysler brand which is dynamic, active and environment-friendly, i.e. fuel-efficient (Peters, 2012). The development and introduction of the new vehicle will take one-two years and the creation of the new car should be accompanied by intensive promotional campaign to make the audience come prepared to the appearance of the new car and the new Chrysler brand. The company can start the mass production of the new car on the third year from now on and maintain the active promotion of its new brand and car. At the same time, the company can develop new models on the platform of the new car and expand the promotion including new models oriented on young people, who are interested in fuel-efficient, dynamic and active cars that help customers to maintain the active lifestyle.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Reasons Raising the Minimum Wage Can Hurt the Economy

Reasons Raising the Minimum Wage Can Hurt the Economy According to the left, raising the minimum wage and providing a fair wage is the best way to eliminate poverty and address income inequality. But doing so has consequences far beyond an employee simply getting a raise on their paycheck one day and thats the end of it. Weve already seen the consequences of the poorly thought out, expensive, and lousily executed Obamacare laws and drastically raising the minimum wage the way liberals are proposing could lead to equally unfortunate outcomes for the very people the law is supposed to help. 1. Attempting to artificially raise incomes through a minimum wage increase is more about electoral politics than it is about actually helping people achieve the American Dream. Indeed, when polled people regularly support such a raise, because who would oppose people making more money? But economics realities are more than what sounds nice, and everyone would be better off by supporting true pro-growth policies that open up opportunities for everyone willing to work for the American Dream, rather than expect it be handed to them. Artificial wage increases can set the economy back while not even finding true relief for those the increase are intended to help. 2. If the goal is to lift people out of poverty, this will not do that. Figure that a huge chunk of minimum wage jobs are part-time, and the number of part-time jobs as a percentage of the workforce are only increasing already because of Obamacare. How many people would rather make $8.50 an hour and work 40 hours a week with a company-sponsored insurance plan over making $10 an hour with hours cut back to 28 per week and left to shop at an Obamacare exchange for excessive and costly insurance they might not need? (And even if the plans are cheap because of subsidies, the Obamacare deductibles are probably out of reach for these people anyway.) 3. Do this math equation: Obamacare Higher Wages for Unskilled Labor - Cost to Replace Said Worker with a Machine Adios jobs. The high costs of Obamacare plus increased wages (which also means higher payroll taxes paid by the employer) makes it more attractive to replace low-skilled jobs with machines. Self-service food-ordering machines are already being implemented in many restaurants nationwide. 4. Minimum wage jobs are typically low-skill or entry level jobs. If the costs to fill low-skill positions become to high, consolidation can occur and businesses are likely to replace two or three employees with one employee who excels and can do multiple jobs quicker. In other words, it would probably be more attractive to hire an ambitious and talented self-starter at $18 an hour to replace 2-3 less ambitious or inefficient employees making $10 an hour each. A business could even pay the one employee some solid over-time and still be ahead in the end. The more an employee is paid, the more is expected of them. Making jobs artificially more expensive also makes employees with less skill or who are new to the workforce more expendable. And these are the people the new laws are intended to help. 5. Believe it or not, the money needed to pay these employees has to come from somewhere. Retailers - who probably employ the greatest percentage or minimum wage earners - would simply be forced to raise the price of goods and services. So even if someone makes an extra $28 bucks a week, how much more are the same workers going to have to pay for food, gas, or clothing to make up for increased labor costs? 6. Different states have different economies and the cost of living in New York is different than the cost of living in Texas. It simply does not make sense to have a one-size plan for completely different economies. This is why, of course, conservatives believe in federalism and believe that Alabamans have the right to live how they want to and Vermonters have the right to live how they want to. Nationally centralized policies rarely work when their are so many factors in play. 7. Many small businesses already struggle to survive with the current burdensome regulations offered up by the federal government. Many rely on part-time help from high-schoolers to scoop ice cream, work the car wash, or deliver flowers. Small businesses are already at a disadvantage as they typically have higher overhead costs and must make more margin on products sold just to survive. This would only make it more difficult for them to succeed. 8. The minimum wage is seemingly raised every few years, and its never enough in the long run. After all, a minimum wage at $10 is still a minimum wage. And if higher labor costs cause the price of everything to go up anyway, the power of the dollar is merely weakened and no progress has been made. Which brings us back to our first point: The American economy needs true economic growth that enables people to succeed, not a policy based on a bumper-sticker slogan that offers a temporary feel-good fix that will be just as worthless and new minimum wage increase demands roll around. 9. Higher paid employees will want raises equal to those of the minimum wage employees. If people at the bottom of the pay chain get a 20% raise, everyone who makes more than that will also expect - and perhaps rightly so - a 20% raise as well. Imagine having worked in a job for a few years and earned increases only to have some guy hired at the same rate on day one because the government says so. Now businesses either pay all of their employees more or enjoy a disgruntled workforce. In the end, minimum wage increases go beyond increasing labor costs for just the targeted group. 10. This is where the harsh reality sets in: Minimum wage jobs are not intended to enable people to raise a family of five on. They simply arent. Yes, there are circumstances where people are forced to take jobs at minimum wage, perhaps more now than ever. But minimum wage jobs are designed for entry-level workers, kids in high school (who Id assume shouldnt have the need for $20K/yr jobs), or those looking to add a little extra money through a second job. The point is to move up from there into intermediate jobs, and with enough hard work a very well-paying job. Thats pretty much the point of a minimum wage job, and the point is not to support families. Its nice to say that a full week of work means everyone who does so gets a house, SUV, and an iPhone (and how many struggling minimum wage workers have the last one?), but the reality is that is not what those jobs are intended for. The problem with the lefts over-simplified solution to the economy is that the more expensive these jo bs get, the more likely those that need them will be able to get them. And how does that help anyone?

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Technologies coming true Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Technologies coming true - Research Paper Example One of his assumptions is that he could, indeed, connect to the past and communicate with his dead father, or that he could link up with the future and connect with people trying to talk to him. According to the professor, time is flexible and it could be manipulated by twisting space. The documentary explains the possibility of using a circulating light beam to twist space and close time to a loop. The key challenge is to get laser power to twist space. The professor uses the principle of flexible time to send particles into the past. The documentary explores the link between energy, space, and time as developed by Albert Einstein. However, the professor acknowledges practical challenges that would make it impossible for the machine to connect to the past from the present moment. Various conditions have to be met in order for the professor to challenge the aspect of time as it appears in reality. It might be important to notice that some of the issues that connect to the questions a bout time are actually based on the acknowledgement of the bridge between the theoretical explanations and the practical difficulties involved. The acknowledgement of the difficulties involved in the practical possibilities of the time machine effectively distinguishes this documentary from many science fiction movies, which have always insisted on the possibility of uniting the past and the future through some technological implements born out of their own imaginations. The documentary separates the possible from the impossible by use of illustrations, theories, and explanations. It might be important to assess the similarities and contrasts between the grounds established in The World’s First Time Machine documentary and the imaginations that run through a science fiction film such as Back to the Future. Whereas the documentary attempts to provide facts about the workability of the time machine, the film begins from the imaginative point of view that already affirms such wo rkability and proceeds to explore the capacity of the machine to influence humanity and human destiny. The science fiction film, Back to the Future directed by Robert Zemeckis, effectively expands on the growing fascination about the possibility of man moving back and forth in time. The film is centered on the exploits of Marty McFly who manages to reverse the misfortunes of his family and friends by accidentally using a time machine invented by his friend Emmet Brown, a renowned scientist. McFly’s travel into the past is made possible after some Libyan terrorists kill the doc for having stolen their plutonian, which he used to power the time machine. McFly eventually learns that he is displaced from the present moment of 1985 up to the distant past of 1955. At this point, he meets his parents before they have begun dating and ensures that they are together in order to ensure the sustainability of the family. He is also able to prevent some of the happenings in the past becau se he had prior knowledge of them when he left 1985 towards 1955. For instance, he is able to protect his future father from the accident, which had brought him and his mother in love at the first place. He also meets the young Doc and convinces him to make possible his travel back into the future. During their encounter in the past, he warns Doc in a letter about his future murder at the hands of the Libyan terrorists. Doc wears a bulletproof vests and he is able to avert death. The second dramatic

Friday, October 18, 2019

Is the Sentence of Death Appropriate for Those Who do not Kill Essay

Is the Sentence of Death Appropriate for Those Who do not Kill - Essay Example An even bigger debate can be ignited on the issue of the death penalty concerning those that participate in what is considered a capital crime, but do not actually commit the crime themselves. In deciding this issue, and in respect to the Eighth Amendment prohibiting â€Å"cruel and unusual punishment†, the Supreme Court has adopted both a subjective and an objective approach, swinging back and forth between the one that serves objectively to the one that serves subjectively, and back again to the more objective method. In this paper, we examine both approaches, as well as personal opinions regarding them. Introduction The death penalty, as decided and imposed by the laws of the United States of America, has a long and illustrious history of being debated, enacted, struck down, and otherwise discussed. Though the United States is the only democracy in the Western Hemisphere that actually retains the use of the death penalty as a punishment to criminals, it demands certain crit eria and other factors are present before it comes into consideration or is used as a part of the criminal process (Scheb & Scheb II, 2011). Complicating the debates that surround the death penalty are those cases which question its use in punishing those that were not actually involved directly with the capital crimes committed, yet received the death penalty as a sentence; the same applies to those that were juveniles at the time they committed a capital crime and when the mental status of a suspect or defendant is challenged and/or proven to be of such a nature that he or she could not have understood the crime that they were committing. In the article â€Å"Executing Those Who Do Not Kill: A Categorical Approach to Proportional Sentencing†, by Joseph Trigilio and Tracy Casadio, we are asked to examine the historical and current policies of the United States Supreme Court in regards to those who are only accomplices in felony cases, cases in which they did not kill or inte nd to kill, with regards to the view on the sentence of capital punishment, especially given the criteria that the death penalty may be viewed as â€Å"cruel and unusual punishment† as per the United States Constitution, Amendment VIII. Given the extent of the debate on the death penalty itself, even in light of recent legislation that has banned its use in cases concerning juveniles and those of diminished mental capacity it is not an exaggeration to say that the death penalty, while not taken lightly as a part of the criminal process, will never lose its status as a debated issue, even among the United States Supreme Court. Objective versus Subjective Approach The Supreme Court of the United States has succeeded in bouncing back and forth in differing methods of evaluation for capital punishment. There was a time that an objective approach was taken, such as in the cases of Enmund v. Florida 458 U.S. 782 (1982), 399 So.2d 1362 (Fla. 1981), 454 U.S. 939 (1981) and Coker v. G eorgia 433 U.S. 584, 97 S. Ct. 2861, 53 L. Ed. 2d 982 (1977). Though a two part analysis took into account the objective factors of current legislation at the time of the decision as well as a subjective analysis involving human dignity as it related to the use of capital punishment as a means of retribution and deterrence for crimes, the fact remained that cases were decided based on objective means (Trigilio & Casadio, 2011). This method was then applied to many cases, including Coker v. Georgia

Compare two things Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Compare two things - Essay Example On the other hand, the dog is the domesticated type of the gray wolf, and that gives the reason for the close resemblance between the two. Studies on their genetic drift have provided evidence showing that the wolf and the dog have a common ancestry (Spotte 28). North America and the Eurasian regions were the major homes of the global wolf population, but the numbers have been reducing, following an increase in human encroachment. This paper will present a comparison and a contrast of dogs and wolves, to inform people about the similarities and the differences between the two. The similarities between the dog and the wolf include that the two animals belong to the same animal species: the dog belongs to the Canidae family (canis lupus familiaris) and the wolf belongs to the same family (canidae) but the sub-family is the canis lupus. Other similarities include that the two belong to the animalia kingdom; the phylum classification of the two is also the same – they belong to the chordata class (Spotte 28). The two animals belong to the mammalian class of animals; both fall under the carnivora order; the wolf and the dog also belong to the canis genus of animals. These areas of similarity for the dog and the wolf show that they are naturally more similar than many people would believe, despite the fact that many people regard wolves to be very wild – unlike dogs. The second main area of similarity is that the two animals possess hunting abilities, despite the fact that their styles of hunting are relatively different. In the case of dogs – due to its domestication – is more likely to have a weaker hunting instinct (Horowitz 42). Further, their physical characteristics are also affected by their domestication, including that, the teeth of many species of dogs are too small and not strong enough to tear the throat of a dear. These physical changes in the dog are mainly due to its

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Active role in the community offering time and help and DBU have help Essay

Active role in the community offering time and help and DBU have help with this - Essay Example Going by this argument, I am of the opinion that by reading them stories in the nursing homes, I believe that I cheer them up and give them the motivation to live for more years in their remaining lives. The same case applies to Townsend’s (2011) work that argues that for nursing care to be holistic, it must entail both the biological and behavioral aspects. My visit to the nursing homes touches both on the biological and behavioral aspects of the elderly persons. Through reading them the stories, I lighten their day, which has an impact on their biological well-being and also on their behavioral aspect as the elderly become more positive with life; thus, have a chance to believe that they can not only live longer, but also fruitfully. In the thought of Baker (2007), a great percentage of people degrade the elderly homes for the claim that they have a fouls smell, and other simply have the wrong perception of the homes. With this in question, it is evident that a lot of help is required in these homes, if the elderly have to feel that they belong to the society in general. I chose to help the elderly by visiting them as I believe that these homes are dignified homes and are purely directed at making sure the elderly are taken care off. I choose to better the way in which the elderly live by visiting them regularly especially with the help of DBU. I also hold this opinion as I believe that I will be the next victim and will certainly require the help of others to live a perfect old age. Unlike the common perception that the elderly are a burden to the society, Horsfall, et al (2011) recommend that the elderly develop relations that will help them live happily. In the event that the elderly make connection with the community and other caregivers, it has been indicated to be therapeutical for the older people (Horsfall, et al., 2011; My Aged Care, n.d). My move to spend time with elderly and reading

Outsourcing and Manufacturing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Outsourcing and Manufacturing - Assignment Example In addition, labor shortages in the manufacturing industry may compel them to outsource their services. This is mostly evident in china where most individuals are opting to remain in the rural areas due to the rising costs in urban areas (Loyalka, 2012). The fact that their population is fast aging is also a compelling factor for manufacturing industries in the country to outsource. For America to succeed, it ought to educate most of its students mostly in science, engineering, math, and technology (Malone, 2012). This is because most of the manufacturing positions are lacking applicants due to unavailability of the necessary skills required to partake those manufacturing jobs. Moreover, for a manager to succeed in the 21st century, they ought to have a good working relation with their employees to enable them fish out and solve any arising problems. The managers also ought to be on the lookout for any sign of labor shortage or increased cost of production that might bring their organization down. Where need be, the managers should outsource some of the services that they find expensive for their companies to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Active role in the community offering time and help and DBU have help Essay

Active role in the community offering time and help and DBU have help with this - Essay Example Going by this argument, I am of the opinion that by reading them stories in the nursing homes, I believe that I cheer them up and give them the motivation to live for more years in their remaining lives. The same case applies to Townsend’s (2011) work that argues that for nursing care to be holistic, it must entail both the biological and behavioral aspects. My visit to the nursing homes touches both on the biological and behavioral aspects of the elderly persons. Through reading them the stories, I lighten their day, which has an impact on their biological well-being and also on their behavioral aspect as the elderly become more positive with life; thus, have a chance to believe that they can not only live longer, but also fruitfully. In the thought of Baker (2007), a great percentage of people degrade the elderly homes for the claim that they have a fouls smell, and other simply have the wrong perception of the homes. With this in question, it is evident that a lot of help is required in these homes, if the elderly have to feel that they belong to the society in general. I chose to help the elderly by visiting them as I believe that these homes are dignified homes and are purely directed at making sure the elderly are taken care off. I choose to better the way in which the elderly live by visiting them regularly especially with the help of DBU. I also hold this opinion as I believe that I will be the next victim and will certainly require the help of others to live a perfect old age. Unlike the common perception that the elderly are a burden to the society, Horsfall, et al (2011) recommend that the elderly develop relations that will help them live happily. In the event that the elderly make connection with the community and other caregivers, it has been indicated to be therapeutical for the older people (Horsfall, et al., 2011; My Aged Care, n.d). My move to spend time with elderly and reading

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Legacy of Vietnam Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Legacy of Vietnam - Term Paper Example The withdrawal of forces implied no direct involvement, but the US still planned to safeguard ‘Saigon’ through military and economic aid. Although Nixon’s regime uncompromisingly worked for â€Å"Thieus’s† (South Vietnamese Premier) cause but because of certain issues raised by the US Congress, the aid to the South Vietnam was cut by half. Reduced aid further weakened South Vietnam’s position. This period was also marked by the premature resignation of President Nixon. The advance by the North Vietnamese communist army was swift and the conquest was completed in 1975. One of the prime implications of the conflict was economic. The war had brought a wave of inflation that the US had not witnessed in years with money flowing into Indochina for the ‘Anti Communist’ cause. Although the North Vietnamese were ostensibly victorious in unifying Vietnam, their victory was accompanied by the drainage of its State treasury. The country had b een ecologically damaged and all other institutions apart from the army had been moribund during the war years. The war had ironically turned Vietnam into one of the poorest countries of the world with fourth largest army in the world. The political implications were also major and they transcended the immediate region of Vietnam and also affected the proximal regions. The following chaos in Laos and Cambodia form an integral part of the ‘legacy’ of the war. The new unified Vietnam was facing its own problems with the culturally disparate north and south struggling to maintain a same national identity. In the post war years, America has made deliberate attempts to erase the lost Vietnam War from its consciousness. This made the veterans position rather flimsy as their efforts and sacrifices in the war were being rendered futile and meaningless by the public. This forced exclusion of Vietnam War has in a way alienated the war veterans who have suffered from isolation, dr ug abuse and many psychological disorders. Moreover, the views of the public on the war are very variegated which make the Vietnam War a fairly complex issue to understand. With the loss of the Vietnam War, the writer believes that the American policy makers have become more and more security conscious over the years. Taking the increased involvement of the USSR in the Afghan region as an example, the Americans spent millions of dollars on harnessing fundamentalist guerilla warfare in the region. Similar examples can also be seen in the leftist revolutions in the Central American region. The conclusion perhaps holds the crux of the article. The writer with the entire historical contextualization is trying to assert that the Vietnam War was in fact a paramount event in the history of international politics. It was marked with the exposure of the vulnerability of a Superpower that was far more superior militarily and economically from its opponent but had to suffer a humiliating defea t. The writer believes the contemporary world is not the world that was easily manageable by the imperial powers as in the 1940s. The political intervention of the powerful nations is not as easy as it used to be in the earlier half of the century when the superpowers defined the political map to suit their strategic interests. In the new era, America needs to accept its weaknesses and accommodate situations that might not be as palatable

Flaws with Utilitarianism Essay Example for Free

Flaws with Utilitarianism Essay Among the most glaring problems that I see with Utilitarianism is its inclusion of animals under the umbrella that blankets this theory. It seems irrefutable that there exists an inordinate number of cases where the consequence that is against the best interest of an animal is favorable to humans, yet that dictating action is one that has been continually taken and condoned by the general public. This is a fundamental challenge, as the Utilitarian philosophy decrees that the pleasure and pain experienced by all individuals, including animals, has equal worth and must be considered when determining the net benefit of an actions consequences. The most drastic and prevalent of examples that one could provide to illustrate this contradiction would be the practice of using animals to provide food. It cannot be argued that it is in the best interest of a cow, a chicken, or another animal to be slaughtered to serve the dietary needs of mankind. Accordingly, Utilitarian reasoning suggests, in direct opposition to the intuition of humanity, that it is morally impermissible to kill the animals. While a Utilitarian philosopher might provide the counter-argument that such is natural order of the world that there exist a hierarchical food tree. Further they would insist that the greater good is that humans be nourished and provided for by the meat, for our pleasure is superior in quality to that of the beast. This reasoning, however, is flawed in two ways. Initially, the method by which meat finds its way to grocery stores for our purchase and eventual consumption is not one governed by the ways of nature, but rather is one engineered for efficiency by humans. Animals are bread forcibly, then nourished with specific intent of managing fat content, meat flavor, and healthiness, each of which discounts the Utilitarian claim that nature makes our carnivorous methods ethically permissible. Secondly, and perhaps more fundamentally, such a claim is in direct contradiction to the Utilitarian tenet that each individual has equal value regardless of identity or stature. Because humans could be sufficiently nourished without the killing of animals, it cannot be argued that the consequence of causing death to an animal is equivalent or less substantial than that of feeding a man. Conversely, there exist equally as many challenges to raise had the ethicist taken the alternate position that animals have equal value and accordingly that their pleasure is impermissibly infringed upon when they are killed for human interest. Arguments could be presented for a bevy of actions taken on a daily basis by society as a whole. One might address the fact that using animal testing for the advancement of medicine has benefits that outweigh the pains. Similarly, while the development of land effectively kills the previously animal inhabitants, it is an accepted result that society has displayed it is willing to disregard. In each of these cases, the majority of society condones such behavior, as evidenced by their existence as common public practice. While it is undeniable that opposition to each behavior does exist, the magnitude of this resistance is far outweighed by those in finding the long term benefits worthy of the negative consequences. In the end, it grows apparent that while it may be valuable to consider the interests of animals when calculating the net benefit of a given action, neither their pleasure nor their pain should be equated to ours. Such a principle has been introduced through the ethical thought experiment The Dilemma of the Swine. Resultantly, human existence constitutes higher pleasure that does that of an animal and we are often better served by making such a distinction through intuitive analysis rather than applying Hedonistic Calculus. The fact that Utilitarianism can be forced into contradictions regardless of the stance they choose makes the inclusion of animals under their ethical umbrella a significant problem.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Alexander the Great Essay

Alexander the Great Essay With the courage of a tiger and the ferocity of a Lion, Alexander III swept through Eastern Europe and Asia. Alexander the Great as he would be called was believed to be a descendant of the Gods! He was a military genius because his battles throughout Asia Minor, against Darius, the King of the Empire of Persia, would bring him fame, fortune, and eternal glorification as the greatest king to have ruled in all of history. The Macedonian kings level of intelligence, the amount of land that he acquired, and the fact that he was a military genius, is some of the most important aspects to the life of Alexander the Great. The intelligence quota of Alexander the Great was incredible and was recognized at a very young age. By following the teachings of Aristotle, Alexander would expand his horizon of knowledge to an incredible extent. The reason for this great expansion of knowledge was because of the deep rooted respect that Alexander had for Aristotle. We can see this obvious respect because He placed the copy of Homer into a casket, adorned with jewels, and it followed him wherever he went. (Abbott) Alexander loved books. He loved expanding knowledge, not only for himself, but for his people. His famed city of Alexandria was built after him. It housed the greatest library of the ancient world. It had thousands of books and scrolls and all kinds of literature. By using his vast amount of literary resources surrounding him, he was able to sharpen the tip of his spear that was his knowledge of military tactics. By studying ancient generals and kings, whether they were great in what they accomplished or terrible for how they failed, he learned to use their feats in a way to better himself as a king and especially as general. He would go on to use his knowledge to command and conquer the once thought invincible Asiatic empires. Alexander the Great was one of the most amazing leaders in the history of ancient Greece. The expansions of his boundaries of the kingdom were phenomenal. In five years, he expanded his empire east by 2500 miles (Leadership). He was one of the most successful military commanders of all time and is presumed undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks (Snow). He controlled the vast majority of the eastern European continent and he also controlled much of the Asiatic continent as well. Alexander the Great was one of the best-known rulers in ancient history. By the time of his death at thirty-two, he ruled the largest Western empire of the ancient world (Alexander the Great Biography). By controlling this vast empire, the economy of the Macedonian empire would have flourished dramatically. This would be because of trade. The trade routes that were mapped out by Alexander and his army were extremely important. They allowed trade caravans to be able to traverse through these, previously, unchartered areas. This would allow for the exotic merchandise from foreign lands to stream into the cultures of the Macedonian people, thus causing cultural diversity. He expanded Macedonia, thus, creating an empire that covered over two million square miles. He founded 70 cities and many were on trade routes thus increasing east-west trade. He also saw the need to create a new coinage system so that his whole empire would be connected during exchanges. (Leadership) A major accomplishment of Alexander was that he saw that he needed to make his new subjects happy. To make them happy he granted them freedoms and in return he asked for loyalty. He also tried to integrate families into the Macedonian families and so he would have his soldiers marry some of the women and, thus, creating a more diverse and multi-cultural Macedonia. When Alexander ascended the throne of Macedon following the death of his father in 336, the city states of Greece and the huge empire of Persia had already been in conflict for hundreds of years (Sheppard 9). Alexanders motivation for success was driven by glory. He wanted to be remembered and be seen as a God by all who knew of his name. Alexanders favorite tutor was Lysimachus. This tutor devised a game in which Alexander impersonated the hero Achilles. Achilles was a heroic Greek warrior from a famous ancient poem called theÂÂ  Iliad.ÂÂ  Achilles became the model of the noble warrior for Alexander, and he modeled himself after this hero. This game delighted Olympias because her family claimed the hero as an ancestor (Alexander the Great Biography). He also wanted to exact his revenge on the Persians who had invaded 150 years prior to his ruling. He was a great military leader because he knew about strategy. Alexander inherited a well-trained army from his father and trained them even further. Perhaps surprisingly, the size of his army never went over 40,000. What Alexander did value and perhaps what kept his army smaller, was the mobility and speed gave military advantage (Military Commanders). He realized that through speed and mobility he would be able to quickly alter his positions and to out maneuver and eventually outflank his enemies, resulting in an almost immediate victory. He would never ask anyone to do something if he himself would not do. This means he would never have his soldiers do something dastardly during battle unless if he was there doing it with them. We can see the accuracy of this statement because he would always lead his men from the front. This made him an easy target, but also a huge motivation towards his troops. This may have been the reason that he wounded so many times. On an interesting note, he would never drink water until he knew that all of his soldiers had water to drink. Alexander is given credit for creating the phalanx style of battle. This was a battle tactic that consisted of hoplites in columns. The columns would be ten men across and ten men deep. Men in the phalanx carried a round shield called a hoplon, from which the infantry took their name, hoplites. The hoplites wore metal armor on their chests, forearms, and shins at least, plus a metal helmet that covered the head down to the neck. The addition of armor classified the hoplites as heavy infantry, as opposed to light infantry that wore little or no armor. (The Great Phalanx) With the addition of more phalanx groups Alexander would have created an extremely large and mobile fighting force. Being mobile meant that enemy cavalry could not easily strike a decisive blow against Alexander. The Grecians are known for their ability to organize and form gaps in their lines to prevent effective cavalry attacks. When a man has the ability to have historians put a Great after their names then they have to do something simply remarkable. When they have a city named after them, Alexandria, then they have had to of done something remarkable. If they are in the Bible, a book that has not been edited for thousands of years, as one of the greatest kings in all of history then they had to of done something remarkable. Alexander of Macedon, or Alexander the Great, shaped the history of mankind. In Daniel 11:2-4, we see that he is mentioned as the he-goat that destroys the ram, which a reference to Darius. This is an incredible feat for anyone. A man of his stature, a man who was extremely intelligent, acquired huge amounts of land, and was simply the most inspirational and fearless military leader of his time, deserves to have the title of Great. Alexander the Great would go down in history as the most influential and important ruler of the Ancient Grecian world.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying and in Virginia Woolf’s A Mark on the

William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying and in Virginia Woolf’s A Mark on the Wall - Subjective Narratives in Modernist Texts Like many other modernist texts, William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying employs many unreliable narrators to reveal the progression of the novel. One of the most interesting of these narrators is the youngest Bundren child, Vardaman. Like the rest of his family, Vardaman is mentally unstable, but his condition is magnified due to this lack of understanding of life and death. Because he doesn’t grasp this basic concept, Vardaman’s attempts to understand his mother’s death are some of the most compelling aspect of the novel. Over the course of the book, Vardaman attempts to rationalize his mother’s death through animals, particularly a fish. Through these rationalizations, Vardaman comes to a seemingly logical conclusion about the nature of life and death. While these conclusions seem perfectly logical to Vardaman, they are nonsensical to the reader. This concept helps illustrate the use of subjective narrators in As I Lay Dying, and defines it as a Modernist text. Vardaman’s first narrative comes right after his mother Addie’s death. Frightened, he runs out of the house and tries to rationalize what has just happened. He describes his earlier chore of gutting and chopping up a fish in the yard and then directly relates this experience to Addie: â€Å"If I jump off the porch I will be where the fish was, and it all cut up into not-fish now. I can hear the bed and her face and them and I can feel the floor shake when he walks on it that came and did it† (53-54). Here, Vardaman is confused as to what exactly happened in Addie’s bedroom. He portrays the before and after of the fish, being â€Å" fish†... ... of the text. The use of the subjective narrative in Modernist literature is one component of the movement’s radical break from previous literary periods. The subjective, psychologically oriented narratives in As I Lay Dying and â€Å"A Mark on the Wall† are illustrative of this radical literary change. Vardaman Bundren’s irregular logic reconciling his mother’s death, Virginia Woolf’s meandering stream of consciousness narratives help define their texts as key elements of this groundbreaking movement. Works Cited Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying. New York: Random House, 1985. Woolf, Virginia. â€Å"A Mark on the Wall.† The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Twentieth Century. 7th ed. Vol. 2C. Ed M.H. Abrams. New York: Norton, 2000. 2143-2148 5 Hill

Friday, October 11, 2019

The search for self in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Catcher in the Rye :: essays research papers

Search for self in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Catcher in the Rye   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Everyone wants to know who they are, and why they were put here. People often wonder about their futures and what kind of person they really are. In the novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Catcher in the Rye, both of the protagonists, despite the different settings, the other characters, their restrictions and the different people that they are, are searching for the same thing - themselves.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a timeless tale of a young boy who escapes his society that keeps trying to â€Å"sivilise† him and retreats down the Mississippi river with a runaway slave. On his journey he meets many different kinds of people on the banks of the river, some bad and some good, they all help Huck on his journey to self discovery. Catcher in the Rye is a story of a young boy named Holden who leaves his prep school in New York and ventures alone into the city. On his journey he meets a number of people. Holden is quite cynical and he denigrates nearly everyone he meets.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Set in pre-civil war America, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn takes place along the Mississippi river. As Huckleberry travels along it he learns lessons about life, society and most importantly; himself. Surrounded by a world of prejudice and racism, Huck is forced to learn to make decisions on his own. He is able to learn from the imperfections in the rest of the world as he views them. While on the river, Huck and Jim are at peace. The river symbolizes freedom for both Jim and Huck. The river is Jim’s path to freedom from slavery, and it is Huck’s freedom from society. When Jim and Huck journey onto the banks of the river they see the inhumanity to man that goes on in the world. This juxtaposition of the river and the land help emphasize the peacefulness of the river in comparison to the crazy society on land. Huck learns to think for himself, and tries not to conform to the ways of the people on the land. Although the world that he lives in teaches him to be a racist, his journey down the river teaches him to use his own mind, and find out what he really believes in.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York city is the setting for this more contemporary novel, yet it has many similarities to the older, more timeless Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Weimar Republic – Political, Social and Economic Issues

Political, economic and social issues in the Weimar Republic to 1929 Year 12 Modern History 2013 * Mrs Lynch Jenni Hamilton Due Date; 26th of March 2013 Word Count; 1,665 The collapsement of the Weimar Republic was due to many social, political and economical issues within. From its birth it faced numerous political problems, for which the causes were many and varied. These problems included political instability, deep divisions within society and economic crisis; problems were constantly appearing for the new government.The Weimar Republic never really had a stable political party, having a whole six different parties between 1924-1928 does not create stability. Many of these parties were also narrowly sectioned, with messed up priorities such as to look after the interests of class area of religion that they represented within the Weimar Republic, loyalty to democracy was of least importance. In 1929 the misery that had aided the efforts of Weimar’s enemies in the early 20s had been relieved by five years of economic growth and rising incomes.Germany had been admitted to the League of Nations and is once more an accepted member of the international community. The bitterness at Germany's defeat in the Great War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles had not been forgotten but most Germans appear to have come to terms with the new Republic and its leaders. Gustav Stresemann had decided to take on the job of leading a battle for a policy he felt was in his nation’s vital interest even though he was tired and ill and knew that the opposition would be stubborn. Stresemann was the major force in negotiating and guiding the Young Plan through a ‘plebiscite’.This plan although opposed by those on the right-wing won majority approval and further reduced Germany’s reparations payments. The Weimar Republic was a bold experiment. It was Germany's first democracy, a state in which elected representatives had real power. The new W eimar constitution attempted to blend the European parliamentary system with the American presidential system. In the pre- World War I period, only men twenty-five years of age and older had the right to vote, and their elected representatives had very little power. The Weimar constitution gave all men and women twenty years of age the right to vote.Women made up more than 52% of the potential electorate, and their support was vital to the new Republic. From a ballot, which often had thirty or more parties on it, Germans chose legislators who would make the policies that shaped their lives. Parties spanning a broad political spectrum from Communists on the far left to National Socialists (Nazis) on the far right competed in the Weimar elections. The Chancellor and the Cabinet needed to be approved by the Reichstag (legislature) and needed the Reichstag's continued support to stay in power.Although the constitution makers expected the Chancellor to be the head of government, they inc luded emergency provisions that would ultimately undermine the Republic. Gustav Stresemann was briefly Chancellor in 1923 and for six years foreign minister and close advisor to Chancellors. The constitution gave emergency powers to the directly elected President and made him the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. In times of crisis, these presidential powers would prove decisive.During the stable periods, Weimar Chancellors formed legislative majorities based on coalitions primarily of the Social Democrats, the Democratic Party, and the Catholic Center Party, all moderate parties that supported the Republic. As the economic situation deteriorated in 1930, and many disillusioned voters turned to extremist parties, the Republic's supporters could no longer command a majority. German democracy could no longer function as its creators had hoped. Ironically by 1932, Adolf Hitler, a dedicated enemy of the Weimar Republic, was the only political leader capable of commanding a legisla tive majority.On January 30, 1933, an aged President von Hindenburg reluctantly named Hitler Chancellor of the Republic. Using his legislative majority and the support of Hindenburg's emergency presidential powers, Hitler proceeded to destroy the Weimar Republic. Germany emerged from World War I with huge debts incurred to finance a costly war for almost five years. The treasury was empty, the currency was losing value, and Germany needed to pay its war debts and the huge reparations bill imposed on it by the Treaty of Versailles, which officially ended the war.The treaty also deprived Germany of territory, natural resources, and even ships, trains, and factory equipment. Germany’s population was undernourished and contained many widows, orphans, and disabled veterans living in poverty. The new German government struggled to deal with these crises, which had produced a serious hyperinflation. By 1924, after years of crisis management and attempts at tax and finance reform, th e economy was stabilised with the help of foreign, particularly American, loans. This relative â€Å"golden age† was reflected in the strong support for moderate pro-Weimar political parties in the 1928 elections.However, economic disaster struck with the onset of the world depression in 1929. The American stock market crash and bank failures led to a recall of American loans to Germany. This development added to Germany's economic hardship. Mass unemployment and suffering followed. Many Germans became increasingly disillusioned with the Weimar Republic and began to turn toward radical anti-democratic parties whose representatives promised to relieve their economic hardships. The government no longer had sufficient resources to support the German economy, but continued to print paper money.This caused rapid inflation, which Germany used as an excuse for not being able to pay its second instalment towards the reparations. The French government, however, decided to force German y to pay. It did this by sending French and Belgian troops to the industrial heartland of Germany, the Ruhr to collect reparations still owing to them, but the German Chancellor called for â€Å"passive resistance† by the workers of the Ruhr; a refusal to co-operate with the troops. This, however, led to the collapse of the German economy, as the government was forced to print more paper money in order to pay the striking workers in the Ruhr.This caused hyperinflation as Germany was not producing anything; its industrial heartland had been destroyed and yet the number of notes in its economy was increasing. The German currency soon became worthless and prices were constantly rising (For example, an American dollar in July 1914 was worth about 4 marks, whilst in November 1923, its equivalent in marks was 4,000,000,000,000 marks). This struggle is then proved by Gustav Stresemann in the following source; â€Å"We in Germany in recent years have lived on borrowed money, if a cr isis ever hits us and the American withdraw their short-term credits then we would be bankrupt †¦ e are not only militarily disarmed, we are also financially disarmed† The social effects of this hyperinflation were disastrous, particularly for the German middle classes who had lost all their savings and pensions as a result. Then, in September 1923, Gustav Stresemann called for the end of passive resistance in order to begin the restoration of the German economy. This led to great political humiliation however, as it showed that Germany had been forced to do what the French wanted.This led to the Munich Putsch, which was an attempt by the Nazi Party leader, Adolf Hitler to overthrow the government; Hitler was determined to show the German people that not all Germans were going to accept what the French had forced the German government to do. Bavarian police broke up the revolt however and Hitler was arrested. In Saxony, there was another revolt against the republic, but t his was a communist revolt and a communist government was set up, but Stresemann ordered this government to resign or else it would face military action.Therefore, the Ruhr Crisis led to economic collapse, political humiliation, dissatisfaction within society, further opposition to the Weimar Republic and finally, it’s devastating effects caused people to start looking towards extreme solutions. The Weimar Republic, in spite of all its problems, did survive the crisis that had befallen it between 1919 and 1923; even though it had inspired violent political opposition from right and left wing groups, it had faced a devastating economic situation creating a high level of discontent within society, and had brought about serious political humiliation upon itself, it had still managed to survive.All these problems contributed to the political difficulties which Weimar faced during its first few years; a general hatred amongst Germans of the new system and constant opposition towar ds it. The political issue of the Treaty of Versailles was probably the most important individual cause of Weimar's crisis however. It had been the Treaty of Versailles that caused nationalist opposition to Weimar and theGerman nation to step down to a second class power, losing much of its territory, having extreme military restrictions imposed on it, and it had been the treaty of Versailles that had brought about reparations, leading Germany into an extremely difficult economic situation causing further social tensions, and it had been this treaty that had inspired communist opposition by bringing about the need to get Germany back to work, causing the majority socialists (SPD) to cooperate with the old order.It can be argued that this treaty was responsible for most of the hatred of the German people towards Weimar between 1919 and 1923, but on the other hand, Germany would not have been able to negotiate peace had they not signed the treaty. Germany managed to survive this crisi s of economic collapse, political humiliation and dissatisfaction within society. Bibliography; Secondary Sources – * Republic to Reich, A history of Germany 1918-1939 Third Edition: K J Mason; Published 2007 * http://www. ohndclare. net/weimar5_affleck. htm Primary Source – * Republic to Reich, A history of Germany 1918-1939 Third Edition: K J Mason; Published 2007 Gustav Stresemann – page 43 â€Å"We in Germany in recent years have lived on borrowed money, if a crisis ever hits us and the American withdraw their short-term credits then we would be bankrupt †¦ we are not only militarily disarmed, we are also financially disarmed†

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Characteristics of Just Laws And Views Essay

A just law has a number of widely recognized characteristics. A just law is characterized by the following: –treats all people equally The notion of equality is an important aspect of the law. Although a just law may be providing equality it doesn’t always occur that way. For example, a wealthy person may be able to afford legal representation, but those people who can’t afford legal representation will be disadvantaged and will not have an equal opportunity before the law. –is based on generally held religious or ethical precepts The common law legal system is the product of various historical influences, many of which were the religious and moral viewpoints of different times. In today’s society, ethics and how they coincide with the law are being replaced by the need for the law to protect society as a whole and consider economic interests. –is utilitarian Utilitarianism is the theory which suggests the law aims to ensure the greatest possible happiness for the greatest possible number of people. –stresses consensus and social cohesion above all Democracy helps create legal consensus. Democratic processes provide all citizens within the state with the opportunity to develop or create the law. Democratic processes will generally require a majority or consensus to bring a law into being. Democratic processes are designed to endure the survival and well being of the community through stressing consensus. –allows for general principles to be mitigated in individual cases Mitigation allows for fairness. The law attempts to treat everyone equally; that = everyone in similar situations is taxed the same, everyone who commits the same crime is given the same penalty. However the courts have discretion to reduce the penalty according to the circumstances. — aims to redress inequalities –It leaves people free To the extent that people do not break the law, a just law will leave people free. –It takes into account of limitations in material resources. –It can be invoked without undue delay. A just law should deal with a legal problem or dispute as soon as practicable after that problem or dispute arises. This is because people’s memories fade and so their evidence becomes less reliable as time passes. But this is not always the case, as currently the Australian legal system has lengthy delays and cases take long periods of time to reach the courts. Formal Equality – theory side of the actual practice. Here in theory everyone in Australia is treated equally and given the same opportunities Institutionalized equality- this is the practical side to it. Although it seems everyone in Australia is equal there are people in sub groups in society who are part of a minority and aren’t able to benefit from the opportunities. E.g. of formal equality: Everyone has to right to access the law. Everyone has the right to vote EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY-Equal treatment of people in access to employment and services. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..So everyone has the right to apply for a job. They have equal rights to a safe working environment. (work cover). Everyone has the equal opportunity to access the minimum wage. EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW-Everyone is treated equally in their dealings with the law. E.g. The rule of law. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦So everyone has the implied right to legal representation. All Australian citizens are allowed to contest evidence put forward during court (natural justice – cross examination). EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES-A practice whereby the law, policy or precedent aims to ensure that, regardless of educational or socioeconomic background, or inequality of opportunity, the result of certain exercises will be equality†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..so legal aid, if people aren’t able to afford legal representation they are given the opportunity to apply for legal aid. Does formal equality before the law hides institutionalized inequality? This relates most to EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES because this area is where the law has its most flaws. Although everyone might have the same opportunity not everyone is able to understand that system. For example unskilled migrants who come to Australia looking for a better life think Australia has equal everything†¦true but its not equal if you don’t understand it and aren’t familiar with it. For example: if you come from a non – English speaking background to Australia and get into trouble with the law or are being framed or a victim of fraud and exploitation how are you going to access the law and legal representation if you cant speak the language and don’t understand the system. Therefore not an equal opportunity.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Literature review discussing the advantages and disadvantages of Essay

Literature review discussing the advantages and disadvantages of having children nursed in both mixed A&Es and seperate childrens A&Es - Essay Example Aharonson et al (1996) provided information on patterns of services, arrival and factors influencing queuing in A&E departments and suggested that there are potential benefits for management and applying operations research methods in clinical environments. A&E departments are in considerable demand and proper utilization of these services can lead to improvement in the quality and promptness of clinical services offered. However contrary to Chow’s arguments, several hospital emergency departments may be directly related to primary care in providing rapid access and an emergency care network could be established in primary care as well. Integrating the strengths and weaknesses of emergency care with objective data model could help in describing multiple levels of operation and in highlighting process efficiency and clinical effectiveness. The support systems within NHS Direct have shown how people do things within A&E departments especially and how deliberate and thoughtful care could be provided by improving network operations. Accident and emergency departments and networking can help measure and control effective networking and promote interactions. The recent strategic policy shift towards a primary care-led National Health Service in the UK (Department of Health, 1994) has led to renewed interest in redefining the boundaries between primary and secondary care with the aim of shifting selected services traditionally provided in the acute hospital to less resource-intensive primary and community based alternatives. This systematic literature review looks at the potential for effective service provision for young A & E patients at mixed A & Es in UK. The UK has experienced a rapid increase in general practitioner out of hour’s co-operatives over the last 5 years. More generally, a government review of emergency pre-hospital care in England and Wales recently resulted in a series of pilot schemes to test interventions

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Demoiselles D'Avignon by Pablo Picasso Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Demoiselles D'Avignon by Pablo Picasso - Essay Example The essay "Demoiselles D'Avignon by Pablo Picasso" explores one of the most important pieces of art by Pablo Picasso. He completed the picture in 1907. Picasso always applied oil on his canvas. Presently, the picture is displayed in New York’s Museum of Modern Art. In the twentieth century, one of the most significant canvases, Picasso’s , Les Demoiselles D’Avignon, was created due to various reasons. First, among them was the confrontation he had with CÃ ©zanne’s extraordinary accomplishment at the posthumous show which took place in Paris in 1907, a year following the artist’s death. The retrospective exhibition drove the young Picasso, Matisse, as well as many other artists into competing with the inferences of the art of CÃ ©zanne. 1906’s Bonheur de Vivre by Matisse was his first attempt, which was later given to Leo & Gertrude Stein, who went ahead to hang it inside their living room thereby ensuring that all of the avant-garde artists and writers were capable of seeing and praising it. The praises led to the fulfillment of the promise made by CÃ ©zanne that the painting was worth them. Throughout his paintings, Picasso treated women the same way he treated his projects since he used to sketch a little, paint and then progress to the next painting. Although Picasso had over 25,000 works by his name, which mostly concentrated on women; to him, women were merely an object of his enjoyment and pleasure. According to Picasso, there are two sorts of women; the goddesses and the door mats.

Monday, October 7, 2019

Environmental Case Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Environmental Case Analysis - Essay Example The individuals in effect make up the society and hence have to decide what they want to do with their resources but the ultimate decision maker is the government who has to look after the environmental as well as economical side of each decision. The society's concern is to increase their welfare from the amount of resources that they have and the government has to take the decision with economic viability in mind, the case points out that the only way to strike a balance between the two is to have a free market economic system in place which will balance the amount of resources that need to be put in to reduce pollution and those that need to be employed else where. The major economic concepts in the case are of opportunity costs and cost benefit analysis, these concepts are the binding factors for the environmental and economic side of the argument. The analysis can be divided into two portions: the scientific point of view and the ethical point of view, talking of the scientific point of view the first thing that is to be understood is that all things that are achievable in a laboratory are not achievable in the world outside it for example clean water only exists in laboratories and not outside them. But who is to decide what clean is What is clean for some one is not clean for some one else and hence there is no agreement. ... extent does it have to be curbed Should it be cut off from its roots Should it be allowed to remain at a level These are the questions that have to be answered by the scientific side of the issue. When we speak of science, inevitably we have to speak of economics because it is economics that shows us the way to have a cost effective method of curbing pollution. Such methods and processes should be introduced, which tend to minimize maximum amount of pollution using the minimum amount of resources available. The first thing to understand is that there are a limited number of resources that every community has on its disposal and it has to decide how and where to use these resources, hence not all the resources can be used to curb pollution because then the community will have nothing to eat, wear and will have no shelter over their heads. On the other hand if none of the resources are used to curb pollution then pollution would become a major issue for that community. Hence this shows that we have to strike the right balance, that is, the right decision in the right area at the right time. As stated in the case, the right balance can only be achieved if there is a free market economy in place. A free market economy is one where every individual seeks to attain his or her goals in any suitable way he or she wants without any specific restriction or restraints and hence increase his or her satisfaction. By doing this they increase the over all utility of the community and hence in a free market economic system there is a negligible role of the government. Adam smith, the father of economics, said the free market economy operates as if an invisible hand guides each and every individual to attain their goals, and keeps on shifting the economy to the right equilibrium

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Findlay University Education Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Findlay University Education - Research Paper Example The main reason as to why they choose this type of classes was because of time flexibility. More than 18 students agreed that online classes were very flexible, in regard to time management. The need to allocate time for family is another reason as to why these people chose online classes. 5 students who participated in this research gave it as their main motivating factor. Another interesting statistics whereby two students agreed that time for work is a factor in choosing to attend online classes. Another two students agreed that transportation costs were a motivator in choosing online classes. Figure four explains the factors that made students to choose blended classes. Time flexibility was also the main factor chosen by students. This reason was advanced by 19 students. Family time and need of interacting with an instructor were other motivating reasons, and each stood at 4 students each. By looking at this study, I can denote that the results support my hypotheses. It is clear that students would prefer to attend face to face classes, as opposed to other modes of learning. The figures contained in this study give reasons as to why this preference. The main motivating factor is interactions with the instructor, and classroom discussions. In my own opinion, students gave these reasons because they are eager to learn in class, and to them, the best method of understanding the various concepts in class is to interact with the instructors and their fellow students.... From these results, group work is the list motivating factor that made students to choose face to face mode of learning. Figure 3 on the other hand gives an explanation on the various motivating factors that affects students who choose to attend online classes. The main reason as to why they choose this type of classes was because of time flexibility. More than 18 students agreed that online classes were very flexible, in regard to time management. The need to allocate time for family is another reason as to why these people chose online classes. 5 students who participated in this research gave it as their main motivating factor. Another interesting statistics whereby two students agreed that time for work is a factor in choosing to attend online classes. Another two students agreed that transportation costs were a motivator in choosing online classes. Figure four explains the factors that made students to choose blended classes. Time flexibility was also the main factor chosen by s tudents. This reason was advanced by 19 students. Family time, and need of interacting with an instructor were other motivating reasons, and each stood at 4 students each. By looking at this study, I can denote that the results support my hypotheses. It is clear that students would prefer to attend face to face classes, as opposed to other modes of learning. The figures contained in this study give reasons as to why these preference. The main motivating factor is interactions with the instructor, and classroom discussions. In my own opinion, students gave these reasons because they are eager to learn in class, and to them, the best method of understanding the various concepts in class, is to interact with the instructors and their fellow students.

Saturday, October 5, 2019

I can express in a personal letter, different feelings and can report Essay

I can express in a personal letter, different feelings and can report the news of the day making clear what in my opinion are the important aspects of an event - Essay Example The United Kingdom is on the cusp of historical change and I am here to witness it first hand thanks to your unwavering support of my academic pursuits. Without your sparkling recommendation letter to my current university, I doubt I would have been in the unique position to witness British history as I am now. As the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge begin to create their new family with Prince George, I can see that the future of the monarchy is ever bright and that I am a very lucky person to be able to witness all of these changes in the United Kingdom first hand. I will always be grateful to you for your part in helping me succeed in life. You are a unique educator and I wish there were more like you out there because I am sure there are a lot more students who were like me in the past who need your influence to help guide them during their pivotal

Friday, October 4, 2019

Belonging in Visual Texts Essay Example for Free

Belonging in Visual Texts Essay Belong is the feeling or concept of being connected to someone, a place, object or ideaology. Belong is important because it as known as one of a humans basic needs and is required for someone to reach their optimum in life. In the image presented we can draw on the notion that belonging is the feeling of connectedness to someone not merely the presence of other people. The picture incorporates the idea that being alone and being lonely are two different things. Someone may be alone however feel a sense of connectedness to themselves and the world around them and in contrast someone may be surrounded by people yet lack a sense of connectedness to anything and therefore feel like they don’t belong. In the picture we see the latter concept, the idea that the woman is surrounded by people yet feels no sense of belonging due to a lack of connectedness. These ideas are represented through numerous visual techniques within the photo. A salient image produced directs our attention to the lady sitting in the middle, isolated from the people around her. The salient image is produced by vector lines, that is the appearance of a circular shape or perimeter around the lady, this further influencing our idea of alienation. In addition the lady is placed in the very centre of the image drawing attention to her loneliness. The body positioning of every person in the image gives us the idea of exclusion and isolation. The lady in the middle is holding her legs close to her chest in a huddled position, this represents the notion that she is trying to find a sense of belonging and is only receiving this from herself, she holds herself trying to find some closeness and a relationship. The surrounding people are all positioned with there backs to or facing away from the middle lady. This further represents the idea of exclusion and lack of belonging felt by this lady. All of the visual techniques presented in the image are used to express the notion of belong as not something that just occurs with the presence of people but only arises when there is a sense of connection and a relationship to someone. The techniques allow you to sympathise with the lady and feel her sense of exclusion and alienation, yet also allows you to understand he desire to belong.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Software piracy: An overview

Software piracy: An overview SOFTWARE PIRACY IN AFRICA Software piracy is a combination of two different words which are software and piracy. Software can be defined as generic term for computer programs which operate the computer itself; Also Microsoft Encarta dictionary defined the word software as programs and applications that can be run on a computer system. Piracy can simply be defined as the unauthorized reproduction, doubling and distributing or use of copyrighted materials; as for this software piracy can be the illegal copying of software for distribution within the organizations, schools, homes or to friends, clubs and other groups, or for duplication, selling, and installing multiple copies onto personal and work computers. Citizens duplicate or copy software illegally from Macromedia, Adobe, Symantec, Autodesk, Microsoft, Grisoft e.t.c. Africa happens to be the worlds largest and second among the most heavily populated continent after Asia; it has different ethnic group. According to the piracy rate, Africa is one of the highest continents that has or make pirated soft wares in the world. With a 36% piracy rate, South Africa has the lowly piracy rate in Africa, where Nigeria and Kenya are the highest within the region as for 2000-2001 with 71% and 77% respectively as Zimbabwe has the highest in the world where South Africa has just one proportion above the overall average of 35%, according to the 3rd yearly International Data Corporation (IDC) and Business Software Alliance (BSA) overall software piracy study unconfined recently. South Africas piracy rate has decreased one proportion point in the current year, however still represents a 1.2b rand thrashing. The minor decrease in software piracy is qual ified to government act and the obtaining of renowned laptops other than desktop computers full by local assemblers. According to Stephan le Roux, the chairman of the Business Software Alliance (BSA) in South Africa in the following site: http://www.ibls.com/internet_law_news_portal_view.aspx?id=1516s=latestnews Editor, Maricelle Ruiz, IBLS Director Africa Wednesday, June 14, 2006 Software piracy ruins one of the main hurdles to understand the possible of the information economy in South Africa, on the continent and certainly roughly the world, As we are happy that piracy levels are dropping, there is still an anxiety for our local economy that over a third of software in use is against the law. This anxiety rises when you look at some countries in Africa, where as few as one in ten copies of packaged software are legally paid for. Due to the analysis made, the average rate for the African countries reviewed surpassed 70%, in Zimbabwe 90% of the software used is illegal and banned. Jointly with Vietnam, Zimbabwe has the maximum software piracy rate in the world. The mainstream of the African countries for which exact data is available Cameroon (84%); Botswana and Ivory Coast, Algeria and Zambia (83%), Nigeria and Senegal (82%), Tunisia and Kenya (81%) have a piracy rate above 80%. The study estimates that the rest of the countries in Africa, incorporated under the entry of extra Africa, have an average piracy rate of 84%. Egypt has been running to turn out to be a center for Arabic software, but also it has a 64% piracy rate with proportion point lower than the preceding year; while Morocco, which has just been highly praised by the humanity Intellectual Property Organization for adopting dealings to improve its IP system, contained a 68% piracy rate four proportion points lower than the preceding time. Morocc o is among the four countries with the leading proportion point in the preceding year. According to Angola press, quoting Hlatshwayo in http://www.warsystems.hu/?p=189 by bodo on 16/10/06 Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Botswana and Kenya are named as the principal culprits; and As a result of piracy in Africa Microsoft lost $31 million between 2004 and 2006. Many African developing countries need to have IT staffs and implements ICT to joint the todays global world, but to purchase single software is too expensive where they use this reason and makes piracy or uses pirated software; what ever be the case, reasons for copying or making piracy are categorized into 3: 1) purpose of use, 2) economic reasons, and 3) legal reasons. Purpose of use Reasons in this compilation transmit to the reason of use (non-commercial use, running purposes at home, studying, testing) or to the method of using the software (momentary use, compatibility reasons). The subsequent examples demonstrate these views: It is satisfactory in non-business use (for example, studying); it is not satisfactory for trade purposes. You preserve not research by means of costly software earlier than you purchase it experimenting previously makes executive simple and gives self-assurance, I experience the licensing cost for many equipment foolishly patronize while I work at home in addition to at work. Economic reasons In this compilation, the purpose for the illegal duplication of software is based on economic issues. According to respondents, the motives after these reasons are paucity (lack of money) and the wish to accumulate or save money (cost-benefit/efficiency). The subsequent extracts demonstrate these views: In a family there is a jobless computer professional who needs to preserve and keep up his professional Skills, but the family has no money, so the only opportunity is unlawful or illegal copying of computer software. The cost-benefit association does not arrive up to hope. think, for example, games, which one can only play from first to last once, and which outlay 250-350 Finnish marks 50-70 USD/EURO. Legal reasons In this compilation, the purpose for illegal duplication of software is based on legal issues. According to respondents, the rule was measured conventional, or it does not believe duplication as illegal doings. Examples follow: It is not unlawful for personal persons (in Finnish rule this subject is not an illegal offence as far as persons are concerned) the accessible rule is bad, hard and conventional concerning this issue. Software piracy is an act that is against the law and has many problems or harms; among the problems of software piracy are: Software companies compact with very high losses due to software piracy. Pirates expand a lot of money from their software piracy. People are not attentive that what they are doing is a crime. Reasons why the unauthorized copying of software is unacceptable are clustered into three different content categories: negative consequences, free software available, moral and legal reasons and other reasons. Negative consequences The reasons under this compilation are based on the perceived negative consequences of the unauthorized doubling of software. According to respondents, the duplication of software brings on the following kinds of harmful penalty: the worth of software grow weaker, Systems run out since people in all-purpose are not paying software, the cost of software rises and the motion affects sincere and truthful users. Some respondents wrote in ACM Digital library p-siponen: It is possible that the software will weaken in quality, if the software does not bring in anything (widespread copying). The producers of programs lose money and their future production [of software] will suffer. The price of software stays high because only a few buy software. Moral and legal reasons The respondents alleged wickedness at the same time as reasons against illegal copying of Software. Examples are as follows: dishonesty; if unlawful software is used on behalf of earning then that work is morally wrong. If software is duplicated destined for earning money or if it is copied in huge amounts or if individual earns ones income through repetition or copying, I believe those actions wrong I have lawfully bought some of the software I use, but I also have copies of software. If I ever need program/programs for purposes of earning my living, I will definitely buy it/them. The question here is Why Do Piracy Rates Differ? Generally unspecified factors to clarify piracy were grouped into four categories: economic factor, technical factor, regulatory factor and social factor. By looking at each of them individually: Economic Factors. Researchers have long documented the consequence of software price in piracy. According to Shin et al after his research in ACM Digital Library p-bagchi suggest that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is inversely related to software piracy level. Given the decrease in software prices, it may be that a countrys GDP has less of an effect on piracy than it did some years ago. GDP was bringing into being to be a major marker of piracy in 1996 however not in 2001 or in 2003. More, GDP only might give explanation barely 62%à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬63% of the difference in piracy. These findings may help clarify why dissimilar studies have indoors at dissimilar conclusions regarding the Role of GDP. It appears that the shrink in comparative cost of software has pointed the need for piracy. Specified the raise in piracy above this time, nevertheless, it follows that supplementary factors are concerned, and promote that these factors are rising in shock. Technical Factors. Software piracy is assumed to be more widespread in nations with low IT infrastructure given that the eminence of existing software is minor. Thus, people frequently copy and work with pirated software. The difficulty is compounded as software revisions occur. While the necessitate to remain ready for action in the course of upgrades is essential, it is meaningful only if reasonable lots of researchers also consider that software piracy has also flourished through the beginning of the Internet given that some Web sites offer a complimentary software or at prices cheaper than the manufacturers. Regulatory Factors. By commanding elevated tariffs, therefore ever-increasing the cost of software, governments may innocently support piracy. Developing nations repeatedly enforce elevated tariffs on computer products and thus their piracy rates are superior. It is also thought that low censures for import and elevated accessibility of pirated software are also reasons for piracy growth. Copyright rules are well thought-out foreign-induced, without problems understood and outlying fewer strictly forced. According to Meso et al in ACM Digital Library p-bagchi he identified enforcement of copy write laws as a salient issue in the development of a sound national IT policy. However, governments do not consistently implement such rules, partly because of lax law-enforcement facilities and institutional traditions that tend to ignore corruption. Thus, while enforcement of intellectual property rights and proper education may alleviate the problem, in reality few offenders are caught or pr osecuted. Occasional raid s from law-enforcement authorities have seldom disturbed the flow of pirated software. In nations that allow pirated software to be sold at lower prices, black markets have flourished. Individuals and companies in these nations may not even be aware that buying pirated software is illegal since the software has an aura of legitimacy. The overall effect of low censure and easy availability can be captured by the indicator of corruption. Corruption can be defined as the charge of obtaining rights that merely the State can lawfully award, such as preference in loans, taxation, subsidies, tariffs, regulation, and government contracting. Social/Cultural Factors. These factors pass on to the established social or construction of a country and the attitudes joint by members of that society. Single assess of social or public structure is the merit between independence, an insecurely joined social network where people take care of themselves and collectivism, a strongly joined social network where the group reaction is strong. Software piracy is popular in collectivistic societies where people tend to create a psychological detachment among members of the in-group and the out-group. Obligations or devotion to in-groups are measured awfully essential, and in switch over people look forward to that members of in-groups will look after them. Out-groups, on the other hand are not deemed valuable of esteem, given that they do not donate to the broad comfort of the in-group. In such societies, software purchased by a person is estimated to be collective among members of the in-group. given that nearly all collectivistic societ ies lean to be third-world or developing countries, software producers in overseas nations are viewed as out-group Even though software piracy is against the law there are certain companies that benefit from software piracy; according to the president of Microsoft Corps business division within a question at Morgan Stanley Technology Conference the president Jeff Raikes, he admitted to facilitate the companys benefits on or after software piracy in an obvious tilt of the hat to the open basis software giving out replica; he also added by saying there was a well line among seeing high numbers of consumers and making sure that they are using genuine products. He said our favorite objective is that we would like people to use our product. If theyre going to plagiarize someone, we would like it to be us to a certain extent than someone else, he further says. And thats because we appreciate that in the long run the basic benefit is the install foundation of people who are working with our products. Also in addition to that, according to Adrian a technology journalist and author who has devoted over a decade to helping users gets the most from technology. He also runs a popular blog called The PC Doctor. http://blogs.zdnet.com/hardware/?p=111 on 4 October 2006 said I have a propensity to control my property here to hardware related matters, but I experience forced to remark on the newest twistsin theWindows Genuine Advantage saga. This newest twist is the declaration that Windows Vista is to containtechnology comparable to WGA intoit.This statement came out on 4 October 2006viaMicrosoft Press Pass in the form of a press release announcing software protection platform (SPP). Now, whileI dont overlook software piracy for a minute, I use to get it tough tomake much compassionfor the Redmond monster. The method that Microsoft has implemented SPP and WGA doesnt formulate it obvious that the judgment agreed on a PC can be flawed. As an alternative they areforcing individuals who by mistake accused of software piracy to excavate bottomless hooked on their pockets and come up with an additional $149, all because of a software virus. That isnt just incorrect, its wickedness. Allow me suggest the subsequent reaction to career: mistakenly condemning somebody of software piracy is in addition not victimless. See, the thing that bothers me concerning Windows Genuine Advantage and Software Protection Platform is not so much the technology but rather the Draconian way Microsoft is wielding this power over users. Microsoft is confidently dedicated to the perspective that everyone flagged as running a duplicated copy of Windows have to be running a duplicated copy. If the system works and just picks up on individuals running non-genuine copies of Windows, thats great. The world believes that everything that has advantages must have disadvantages; after the advantage of software piracy according to some communities and companies; software piracy disadvantages many people through different ways like the pirate, manufacturers, permanent consumer. If the pirate is caught, he or she spend time in prison, faces rigid and the company also decides to force down charges; a pirate is very liable to download a Trojan or even spy ware, but due to the fact that he likely does a lot of downloading in general, and also because many invented cracks and keygens are actually malware in costume. If pirates are pirating software from a particular company, the company does not receive as much money for their product. To manufacture software can be very expensive, and the cost needs to be recouped in the shear bulk of sales. Due to lack of revolving large profit, they cannot have enough money to finance another round of development, research and also cannot produce new and enhanced versions. The consumers has to deal with the improved anti-piracy safeguards, such as entering product activation key code, and sometimes even a special dongle one must plug into their computer; categorize the company who makes the software to offset the effects mentioned above, they have to increase the per-copy price of the software. Even Microsoft is not immune to this, thats why they created a $300 version of windows vista, even though XP professional only cost perhaps $200. Software piracy has different issues like ethical, professional, social, and legal. Looking at the ethical and professional issues we have: Programmers and the theater artists lose income when copying and repetition is frequent; due to extreme software piracy software companies loses a lot. Certainly we have the freedom to make a copy for a friend, but are duplicating of software an act of sympathy on our part or an act that need kindness reaction from the programmer? Even though large-scale marketable piracy is inferior, individual duplicating is still not ethical. Pricing that is far lower than the manufacturers price can be a warning, but lots of people believe they are getting a good buy not a pirated program. Social issues are: There are lots of things we cannot find the money for; so not being able to afford software is not an excuse for duplicating it. The amount and success of a company do not give reason for enchanting from it. The quantity of people copying software does not verify if it is right or not. People buy pirated software without realizing what theyre doing i.e. without knowing the implications of doing it. Customers use to buy products, such as books and CDs that can be shared with friends and family. There are lots of ways customers can be fooled; in the sense that a pirated software dealer can sale many soft wares with a single key to the customers and within some days the software will request for original key. Legal issues are: But if you buy Windows, it doesnt belong to you, its Microsofts; theyre just leasing you use it. Software piracy gets 7 years in prison Is against the copyright law There are certain options to reduce software piracy; the solutions are categorized into four, namely ethical, social, legal, and market. We have protection under ethical, applying laws under legal, education under social and detection under market. Make sure the protection of leisure industry, publishers and software companies savings expected, or hoped-for revenues. Apply on hand laws, policy, guidelines or increase new ones to protect copyright owners, but also to look after fair use, sensible community access, and the chance to use new technologies to the fullest to supply new services. Technical, executive and lawful solutions include technologies to frighten duplication, selling and contractual changes that reduce the motivation to duplicate unlawfully. Educating with reference to the purpose for copyright guard, enforcement and reconsideration of copyright law. Ensure that citizens who work in manufacturing, marketing, and management are paid for the time and exertion they put to produce the vague academic property we benefit from. Also in addition to how to reduce or avoid software piracy in Africa on Monday, 30 July 2007 an article was released in http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=4dir=2007/July/Monday30 with the following heading: China in Raids to Limit Software Piracy in Africa The fight against computer software piracy in Africa has received a boost following raids and arrests made in southern China over the last two weeks, the result of the largest investigation of its kind in the world. The Public Security Bureau (PSB) in China, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and hundreds of personal companies and allies have been functioning as one to crack a most important software forging association. The association was supposedly liable for distributing US$2 billion (about P12.3 billion) value of forged Microsoft software to 27 countries around the world, as well as Nigeria. Not only did this putting off software resellers from making lawful revenues, it also bare users to the risks related with using pi rated software. The forged goods detained in the raids comprised 13 of Microsofts most well-liked products, counting Windows Vista, Office 2007, Office 2003, Windows XP and Windows Server. Microsoft appreciates the work of Chinas Public Security Bureau in taking such burly enforcement action with these arrests and raids in southern China, said Abednego Hlatshwayo, Anti-Piracy Manager at Microsoft East and Southern Africa. This issue is supposed to serve as a come around call to forgers. Consumers and other organizations in the region of the world are revolving you in, and important act will be taken to defend intellectual property. In conclusions I learn that the software company is an area where home businesses can compete well with multinationals in both local and foreign markets. Yet, without suitable security in less-developed countries mainly African countries where piracy rates are reasonably higher, software pirates can devastate the income streams of small companies that have managed to effectively create particular niches in the companies. That piracy could be helpful to companies without the occurrence of Network effect. If customers have major dissimilarities in their minor value of Money, piracy can shrink competition and increase companys earnings. The solution to the Assessment is the fact that the same amount of money represents different worth to different customers. Poor customers usually value money more than rich customers. The companies therefore need to appoint in more excited competitions to attract these customers, which could be harmful on the whole profits of the company. And all softwa re companies should joint Hand and tackle the pirates via applying laws, educating and detecting them. REFERENCES: www.google.com www.about.com http://www.ibls.com/internet_law_news_portal_view.aspx?id=1516s=latestnews http://blogs.zdnet.com/hardware/?p=111 http://www.warsystems.hu/?p=189 Multi Agency Working: Child Vunerability Multi Agency Working: Child Vunerability There is a wealth of governmental documentation and policy reforms upholding the notion of agencies working in partnership to support vulnerable children. Previously to these reforms there had been a history of fragmentation between agencies and the therefore a inherent failure to share information resulting in catastrophic gaps in the support of vulnerable children. This was emphasised by Lord Laming (2002), and then the subsequent investigations and publication of the Climbie report (2003) post the preventable death of Victoria Climbie. The perceived importance of early identification and intervention as demonstrated in Every Child Matters. (2003, p3), DoH/DfES. (2004) We have to do more both to protect children and ensure each child fulfils their potential and the need for more co-located, multi-agency service in providing personalised support. The Childrens Act. (2004) was the culmination of the Green Paper DfES. (2003) Every Child Matters:Change for Children Agenda, which dictated that every local authority has power to administer grouped budgets and implement a Childrens Trust in order to pull together services to meet the specific needs of an individual child. Wilson, V. Pirrie, A. (2000) states that although partnership working is upheld as extremely beneficial for all children, those children with special educational needs and/or disabilities have formed the focus of much of the educational multi-agency activity. The aims of coordinating these services through a shared working practice across the health and education arena whilst providing a therefore seamless service of support and a one-stop shop for all provisions, supported with the collaboration of Multi-agency working, are strongly emphasised within a plethora of governmental literature DfES. (2003/2004). Joint working is therefore unequivocally viewed as the m eans of providing a more cohesive and therefore effective integrated approach to addressing the needs of the child and family, and in doing so, overcoming many additional stresses that are imposed on families through fragmented support and services and therefore giving the child the best possible start in life DoH. (2006). Although no one argues against the benefits of integrated services Stiff. (2007), and there is clear decisive backing and direction for local restructuring and reorganisation to shape services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable children more effectively, the detail surrounding the configuration and delivery of local services has not been prescribed Rutter, M. (2006). There is minimal research-based evidence regarding the efficiency of multi-agency practice or suggesting which activity carried out by those agencies is most useful, with no absolute model of the many factors influencing its success Salmon, G. (2004). However, the Government has demonstrated a s ubstantial commitment to local authorities developing multi-agency partnerships, providing considerable flexibility for those local authorities and communities to develop their own multi-agency activities, tailored to meet specific needs of their individual areas. However it has often proved difficult to establish the exact impact of multi-agency working, mainly because of the difficulty of isolating why and how a particular outcome has been achieved. This is changing as major programmes are evaluated, Atkinson et al, (2002) states that other commonly identified outcomes of multi-agency work are an increase in access to services not previously available and therefore a wider range of services, easier or quicker access to services or expertise, improved educational attainment and better engagement in education by pupils, early identification and intervention, better support for parents, childrens needs addressed more appropriately, better quality services, a reduced need for more spe cialist services and benefits for staff within those services. Introduction to the SEN Team (SENCo) There are many teams working within the umbrella of education and child services, one particular team is that of the Special Educational Needs team, this case study will focus on the role of the Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCo). The role of the SENCo has been formally established Cowne, E (2003) since the 1994 code of practice DFE (1994) when all schools in England and Wales were required to have a designated teacher in the role of special educational needs coordinator (SENCo). But many schools had SENCos before that date, as the role had been developing since the mid 1980s when training of SENCos had begun in most LEAs. The 1994 code of practice DFE (1994) detailed the tasks that should be covered in the role of the SENCo. These tasks included liaising with external agencies including the educational psychology service and other support agencies, medical and social services and voluntary bodies DFE (1994, para 2.14). A revised code of practice Dfes (2001) added the resp onsibility of managing the SEN team of teachers and learning support assistants within the educational establishment where recently publications.parliament.uk (2006) its significance was re-affirmed. SENCos play a key role in building schools capacity and skills in meeting childrens SEN because of their crucial role in advising other members of staff on SEN matters, linking with parents and working within the multi-agency arena. There is substantial literature related to SENCos authored by researchers, academics and practitioners, in particular, the nature, remit and working conditions of SENCos have been the subject of considerable interest. At school-level, the expectations on, activities of and working condition of SENCos remain highly variable. Barriers how are they overcome (Theory and practice) The achievement of effective multi-agency working within the SEN arena has proved more difficult to achieve than was initially anticipated. In order to create a climate of change where SEN professionals and agencies can work effectively together it is needed that the participants understand what the barriers to change are. Some of the barriers to achieving more effective multi-agency working within the SEN environment that have been identified by DFes (2007) are professionalism; conflicting priorities of different agencies; dealing with risk and the need to change the culture of organisations. Working in collaboration with other professionals and agencies involves SEN and multi-agency workers moving out of their comfort zone and taking risks. Anning, A. (2001, p.8) highlights, However, little attention has been given to two significant aspects of the operationalisation of integrated services. The first is the challenge for SEN workers of creating new professional identities in the ev er changing communities of practice (who I am). The second is for workers to openly communicate and share their personal and professional knowledge in order to create a new version of knowledge (what I know) for a new multi-agency way of working. Lownsbrough, H. and OLeary, D. (2005) states that Despite the genuine support of Every Child Matters, all SEN professionals are faced with the constant challenge of not reverting back to their comfort zone of their organisational boundaries, their professional authority and life inside these traditional boundaries can be far less complex and threatening, and after years of working in a particular fashion they are not easily forgotten. Although no one argues against the benefits of integrated services of multi-agency working Stiff, R. (2007), and there is clear strategic backing and direction for local restructuring and reorganisation to configure SEN services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable children more effectively. There is still little research-based evidence regarding the efficiency of multi-agency strategies or suggesting which activity is most useful, with no comprehensive model of the issues influencing its success Salmon, G. (2004). However, Government has demonstrated substantial commitment to local authorities developing multi-agency partnerships of which SEN is part of, and also providing considerable flexibility for local authorities and communities to develop their own multi-agency activities, tailored to meet their own local needs.Joined-up working has deep implications for the professionals working within the SEN teams, and for the agencies that commission their services. In multi-agency team work, professional knowledge boundaries could have a tendency to become blurred, professional identity can become challenged as roles, and responsibilities change. Some SEN team members may struggle to cope with the fragmentation of one version of their professional identity before a new version can be bui lt. Moreover, the rapid pace of SEN reform leaves little time for adjustment as SEN teams move (often within tight time scales) from strategic planning to operational implementation, with little time for joint training Birchall, E. Hallett, C. (1995). However, it could also be said Freeman, M, Miller Ross, (2002); Harker, Dobel-Ober, Berridge Sinclair, (2004) that SEN team members are more likely to deliver on their objectives with sufficient planning and support from partnering agencies that established the teams in the first place which inturn leads on to empower inter-professional collaboration which include not only enhancing coordination structurally, but also establishing a culture of commitment at a strategic and operational plane to overcome professionally differentiated attitudes. 4. The Way Forward It has been said Bowlby, J. (1988) that children need a secure base from which to explore the world. SEN practitioners also need a secure base in the knowledge that has been acquired though training and practice. Perhaps there is a need for an individual to value what they know and be confident about their knowledge. At the same time to be aware that their professionalism relies on constant updating of working practice and skills via work training and further education, and being aware that there is always something new to be learnt or shared. SEN Professionals now and in the future need to be able to draw on the professional skills that they have, but not to be dominated by them. If they are secure in what they know it could be said that this should enable them to have the confidence to challenge their own thinking and to be open to the different perspectives of other multi-agency professionals. Therefore it can be said that If SEN professionals are to challenge themselves and other s through collaborative dialogue they would also need to be emotionally contained themselves Bion, W. (1962). This act requires good honest SENCo leadership and a culture where trusting relationships can be built. Harris, B. (2004) described trusting relationships as broadly taking place within three dimensions, based in conceptions of emotionality. Effectively these dimensions add up to conditions in which staff first experience a sense of their own value within an organization, in which they feel comfortable about their own abilities and needs; second that through supportive relationships within the organization they reflect upon practice, in dialogue with colleagues, and thirdly they work together to create change and improvement in the setting, or organization, confident of support. Clearly, in order to build effective and trusting relationships SEN team members would need to understand themselves and to have the confidence to share more with others. This process of cultural cha nge is essential if multi-agency working is going to be able to provide better services to children and their families alike.