Wednesday, December 26, 2018
'Attribution Theory Essay\r'
' ascription Theory Definition The help by which psyches interpret and pinpoint draws for their hold own(prenominal) and otherÃ¢â¬â¢s deportment is the theory of attribution. 1 In this penuryal theory, a person al slipway finds a way to excuse things, he farm inferences on why things or events occur. afterward explaining the events a person and then predicts succeeding(a) events through his inferences. He wants to understand the reasons or causes behind deportment of heap and why events happen. It was first proposed by Fritz Heider in 1958 and however developed by Harold Kelly and Bernard Weiner.\r\nTheories Internal vs. remote attributions Every person fete and examine things otherwise thus having different ways of explaining things. The attribution theory proposes that when commonwealth observe and analyze things they try to find bug out whether it is caused naturally or outsidely. 2 attribution is a trinity-stage process: (1) Observation of an idiosyncr atic behaviour, (2) Determination whether the behaviour is intentional and (3) Attribution of the spy behaviour to inner or external factors.Those that are believed that stinkpot be personalizedly controlled are called versed attributions speckle those believed to be caused by outside forces are external attributions. 2 Example of inhering attributions are ability, personality, mood, efforts, attitudes or disposition date external attributions are chore, other great deal and great deal. 4 Fol meeking is an prototype of an screening of this theory is when an employee failed to perform in a addicted over task, a music director tries to explain why this thing happened.\r\nHe may attribute this failure to inadequate efforts make by his subordinate ( intragroup attribute) or he may consider that the given task mayhap be too grueling for his employee (external attribute). Consistency, Distinctiveness and Consensus On the other hand, when fashioning a determination be tween immanent and external causes of behaviour, three factors must be considered: (1) consistency, (2) distinctiveness and (3) consensus. 1 Consistency is how frequent a person behaves similarly when face up with the same situations.\r\nDistinctiveness is how different a person behaves when confront with different types of situations. Consensus is when a group of people behaves similarly when faced with the same situation. 2 When a person behaves similarly when faced with same situations, we can say that the consistency is lavishly; if he acts differently every time expose with the same situation, consistency is low. 3 An face of consistency is the following is when an employee consistently has a low exercise when he ever so charge in a soul task rather when he is assigned in a group task.\r\nThe discovered behaviour of the employee wherein there is a high consistency can be attributed to an subjective factor which is attitude. When a person behaves differently during d ifferent types of situations distinctiveness is high; if he behaves similarly during different situations, distinctiveness is low. 3 An illustration of distinctiveness is when an honor school-age child gets high grades (same behaviour) in all of his subjects during three consecutive grading finishs (different situations).\r\nThe observed behaviour of the student wherein there is a low distinctiveness can be attributed to an inwrought factor which is ability or effort. When the observed behaviour of a group of people is the same in a given situation, consensus is high; if this group behaves differently given a similar situation, consensus is low. 3 An example of distinctiveness is when all students are lately in a first period class (consensus is high), the attribution to this behaviour maybe due to an external factor which is affair caused by a vehicular accident.\r\n see 1. epitome of the key elements in attribution theory. 2 Errors and inclinees in Attribution The variety on how every person thinks, dig and judge things may lead to whatever preconceived notiones. One may consider the greater attributes of certain occurrences to external factors rather than internal factors or the other way around, headspring on the actual these considerations may non be correct all the time. original Attribution Error and Self-serving Bias\r\nFundamental attribution error is when people have the tendency to consider the work out of external factors to a greater extent than considering the influence of internal or personal factors. 2 An example of this is when we attribute the promotion of an officemate to perfect timingor luck rather than to his own efforts and perseverance. Self-serving bias is overestimating the influence of internal factors or personal traits rather than assigning external or situational factors to certain occurrences.\r\nWhen a person attributes his personal success to his own traits or internal and his misfortunes to bad luck or external factors, he is thus committing a self-seeking bias. 1Self-fulfilling Prophecy PerceiverÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations for a person will cause the observer to treat the person perceived differently and the person perceived will reply in a way that confirms the sign expectations. 1 Example of this is when a instructor thinks that his student will do fountainhead during his exam so he spends more time with this student and coaches him well, in sound reflection the student will get a high score in the exam.\r\nSummary Attribution theory is important to guidance because managersÃ¢â¬â¢ and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and opinion can be influenced by how they perceive or see the reasons that cause human behaviour given a certain situation. 3 Different attributions of a manager to an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and performance can affect the standing of the employee in the organization. If a manager attributes the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s poor performance to lack of effort in performing the assigned task, he may fail the employee or give the employee a low rating during performance appraisals.\r\nOn the other hand, if the manager attributes the poor performance to the high level of difficulty of the occupancy, the manager may review and revise the job specifications to lessen the difficulty level of the job. Attribution also affects employee motivation. If an employee attributes the success to external factors, then they may lose motivation since anything that may occur is beyond their control. If an employee attributes success to internal factors like perseverance, then they are judge to have a high motivation for their job.\r\n'