Saturday, April 13, 2013

Litterature review: Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the distribution of freshwater macroinvertebrates

Letort Vanessa

BIO 2600, Literature review

Student number: 2029474

PARAMETERS AFFECTING MACROINVERTEBRATES DISTRIBUTION IN FRESHWATER

Aquatic macroinvertebrates atomic number 18 an important part of the nutrient chain, especially for fish. M each consume on algae and bacteria, which are on the lower sink notice of the food chain. Some shred and eat leaves and other positive matter that enters the water. Beca uptake of their abundance and position in the aquatic food chain, benthos plays a critical role in the essential flow of energy and nutrients. As benthos die, they decay, leaving slowly nutrients that are reused by aquatic plants and other animals in the food chain (Internet 1).

Unlike fish, benthos cannot move around as much, so they are less able to escape the effects of deposit and other pollutants that diminish water quality. Therefore, benthos can give reliable information on stream and lake water quality. Their yearn life cycles allow studies conducted by aquatic ecologists to determine any decline in environmental quality. Macro invertebrates constitute a heterogeneous assemblage of animal phyla and consequently it is probable that more or less members will respond to whatever stresses are placed upon them (Hellawell, 1986).

Biomonitoring is the use of the biologic responses to assess changes in environment. Therefore, macroinvertebrates are most oft used as indicator species.

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Cairns & Pratt (1993) conclude that biological surveillance of communities, with special emphasis on characterising taxonomic enormousness and composition, is perhaps the most sensitive tool now lendable for quickly and accurately detecting alterations in aquatic ecosystems.

Conca and Wright (1992) states that ideally ecologists and managers should understand the processes which lead to the observed patterns of community structure in unstressed flowing-water systems and that this would provide a firm foundation from which to check up on the processes taking place when environmental stresses lead to community change, both(prenominal) structural and functional.

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