Monday, April 8, 2013

Critically Discuss Utilitarianism as an Ethical Theory. What are the Problems that Confront Utiliatarianism as a Theory of Public Policy?

Utilitarianism is a version of clean-living philosophy, initiated by Jeremy Bentham and refined and popularized by John Stuart Mill, which, true to its etymology, is concerned above all with the advantage of gracious activity. Utilitarianism has been wholeness of the most influential of ethical theories, and the one most widely used in ordinary common-sense decisions. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) argued that an work should be judged, not simply on the happiness it appeared to crevice the person who performed it, further according to its ability to benefit everyone involved. He thought that everyones interests should be considered equally, each to count as one and no one as more than one , and did not consider one form of happiness to be more important than an some different(prenominal) form of happiness.

The reference, however, is more specifically to the utility and usefulness of human actions to piss happiness, which comes to be equated with pleasure or the satisfaction of desires. though typical of modern mans mentality, such a philosophy is not unique to modern times. Epicureanism had something similar to say in superannuated Greece. Based on these presuppositions, the utilitarians make the guiding principle of morality the maximization of happiness.

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Therefore, the actions which will produce the sterling(prenominal) happiness of the greatest number are the right ones to be done and those which produce pain are to be avoided or in other words everyone should perform that act or follow that moral rule that will bring about the greatest levelheaded (or happiness) for everyone concerned. Almost from the start, many obvious difficulties were encountered by its adherents, which have guide to continuous revisions. These different versions of the theory have resulted in other names being given to it, such as consequentialism and proportionalism, but the continual revisions can still be grouped chthonic the heading...

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