Monday, March 4, 2019

Chapter 2: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research

Chapter 2 valued, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Answers to look back Questions 2. 1. cast the key features of numerical and soft catch outk. Just look at Table 2. 1, which shows the key characteristics of these twain approaches in their pure or peak constitutes as advantageously as the characteristics of liquifyed inquiry. I will comment a few of these here. Quantitative look uses the deductive or confirming or top bundle scientific mode it is used princip eithery for description, explanation, and prediction. It is based on valued data, in particular on the outline of inconsistents.The resultant roles atomic number 18 statistical and a goal is to generalize the results. In soft look, in contrast, the bottom up or inductive exploratory method is used it is used generally for the purposes of description and exploration and to gain an judgement of how people think and hit their lives. It is based on qualitative data which during analysis atomic numbe r 18 examined for patterns, themes, and holistic features. A narrative report is presented and abstractedness is usually not a goal because the focus is on the local, the personal, the subjective. 2. 2. Describe the key features of mixed look for.Mixed look is the third and newest investigate methodology paradigm. As you can see in Table 2. 1 it tries to mix the trump of qualitative and valued question into research studies. Philosophically, mixed research takes an eclectic, pragmatic, and commonsense approach, suggesting that the tec mix numerical and qualitative in a direction that works best for the presumptuousness research question being examine in a particular context. Mixed research uses both deductive and inductive methods, obtains both quantitative and qualitative data, attempts to corroborate and complement findings, and takes a balanced approach to research.Later in the chapter you will learn about the radical principle of mixed research which states that wh en planning mixed research, the police detective should mix methods or procedures in a way that the resulting mixture or junto has complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses. 2. 3. What is the difference amidst a categorical versatile and a quantitative varying? withdraw of an example of each. A categorical variable varies in type or kind and a quantitative variable varies in degree or amount. An example of the engineerer is gender, and an example of the last mentioned is class size. . 4. Why is observational research more than orderive than nondata-based research when a researcher is provoke in coning cause and effect? Strong experimental research designs (i. e. , the best experiments) include both utilisation and haphazard assignment nonexperimental has uncomplete of these. Manipulation is an action taken by the researcher in the military man (e. g. , providing a treatment to one assort and a control develop to another group) manipulation allows us to see a manipulation first, and indeed observe the outcome or result of the manipulation. Random assignment makes the groups exchangeable on ALL extraneous variables at the beginning of the experiment hence, the oneness difference between the groups will be the level of independent variable received, allowing the differences observed after the experiment is finished to be attributed to the manipulated independent variable. 2. 5. What ar the main problems with the childlike cases of causal-comparative and correlational research? The problem with BOTH of these simple cases is that the researcher has no manipulation, no random assignment, and is only able to reconcile whether a statistical kinship is present.Observing a relationship is NOT decent information to attribute causation. To make a causal attribution, you need to meet triple conditions 1) show that there is a relationship, 2) show that you have the squ atomic number 18 up m ordering of your variables, that is, if A causes B then A moldiness precede B in time, and 3) all alternative explanations must be ruled out. Again, all the simple cases relegate us is a relationship (i. e. , condition 1). (On the other hand, a well conducted strong experiment satisfies all three conditions. ) 2. 6 What be two variables that you believe ar positively correlated?Study time the wickedness forwards an exam and exam grades (i. e. , the greater the study time, the higher the grades). 2. 7. What are two variables that you believe are negatively correlated? Amount of time spent partying the night before a test and test grades (i. e. , the greater the time spent partying, the cast down the grades).. 2. 8. What are the different types of qualitative research, and what is the specify feature of each of these? The types are phenomenology, ethnography, case study research, grounded possible action, and diachronic research.Here are the definitions, with the key ideas underlined (a) Phenomenology a form of qua litative research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. (b) descriptive anthropology a form of qualitative research pore on describing the socialization of a group of people. (c) sheath study research a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed fib of one or more cases. (d) Grounded theory research a qualitative approach to generating a theory from the data that the researcher collects. e) Historical research research about events in the past. 2. 9. What is mixed research, and what is an example of this kind of research? Mixed research (also ordinarily called mixed methods research) is research in which the researcher uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches in a single research study. Example study the members of the snake handling churches in the southerly Tennessee/West Georgia victimisation participant observation and using quantitative measurement instruments to p rofile the participants on variables of interest.Both sorts of data will likely will useful information. 2. 10. What are the three research paradigms in education and what are the major types of research in each of these paradigms? (Hint See Figure 2. 3 in your textbook. ) They are quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed research. Quantitative research has two major subtypes experimental and nonexperimental research qualitative research has fin major subtypes phenomenology, ethnography, case study, grounded theory, and historical research.Chapter 2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed ResearchChapter 2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Answers to Review Questions 2. 1. Describe the key features of quantitative and qualitative research. Just look at Table 2. 1, which shows the key characteristics of these two approaches in their pure or extreme forms as well as the characteristics of mixed research. I will mention a few of these here. Quantitative researc h uses the deductive or confirmatory or top down scientific method it is used primarily for description, explanation, and prediction. It is based on quantitative data, in particular on the analysis of variables.The results are statistical and a goal is to generalize the results. In qualitative research, in contrast, the bottom up or inductive exploratory method is used it is used primarily for the purposes of description and exploration and to gain an understanding of how people think and experience their lives. It is based on qualitative data which during analysis are examined for patterns, themes, and holistic features. A narrative report is presented and generalization is usually not a goal because the focus is on the local, the personal, the subjective. 2. 2. Describe the key features of mixed research.Mixed research is the third and newest research methodology paradigm. As you can see in Table 2. 1 it tries to mix the best of qualitative and quantitative research into research studies. Philosophically, mixed research takes an eclectic, pragmatic, and commonsense approach, suggesting that the researcher mix quantitative and qualitative in a way that works best for the given research question being studied in a particular context. Mixed research uses both deductive and inductive methods, obtains both quantitative and qualitative data, attempts to corroborate and complement findings, and takes a balanced approach to research.Later in the chapter you will learn about the fundamental principle of mixed research which states that when planning mixed research, the researcher should mix methods or procedures in a way that the resulting mixture or combination has complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses. 2. 3. What is the difference between a categorical variable and a quantitative variable? Think of an example of each. A categorical variable varies in type or kind and a quantitative variable varies in degree or amount. An example of the former is gen der, and an example of the latter is class size. . 4. Why is experimental research more effective than nonexperimental research when a researcher is interested in studying cause and effect? Strong experimental research designs (i. e. , the best experiments) include both manipulation and random assignment nonexperimental has neither of these. Manipulation is an action taken by the researcher in the world (e. g. , providing a treatment to one group and a control condition to another group) manipulation allows us to see a manipulation first, and then observe the outcome or result of the manipulation. Random assignment makes the groups similar on ALL extraneous variables at the beginning of the experiment hence, the only difference between the groups will be the level of independent variable received, allowing the differences observed after the experiment is completed to be attributed to the manipulated independent variable. 2. 5. What are the main problems with the simple cases of caus al-comparative and correlational research? The problem with BOTH of these simple cases is that the researcher has no manipulation, no random assignment, and is only able to determine whether a statistical relationship is present.Observing a relationship is NOT enough information to attribute causation. To make a causal attribution, you need to meet three conditions 1) show that there is a relationship, 2) show that you have the correct time ordering of your variables, that is, if A causes B then A must precede B in time, and 3) all alternative explanations must be ruled out. Again, all the simple cases give us is a relationship (i. e. , condition 1). (On the other hand, a well conducted strong experiment satisfies all three conditions. ) 2. 6 What are two variables that you believe are positively correlated?Study time the night before an exam and test grades (i. e. , the greater the study time, the higher the grades). 2. 7. What are two variables that you believe are negatively corr elated? Amount of time spent partying the night before a test and test grades (i. e. , the greater the time spent partying, the lower the grades).. 2. 8. What are the different types of qualitative research, and what is the defining feature of each of these? The types are phenomenology, ethnography, case study research, grounded theory, and historical research.Here are the definitions, with the key ideas underlined (a) Phenomenology a form of qualitative research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. (b) Ethnography a form of qualitative research focused on describing the culture of a group of people. (c) Case study research a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed account of one or more cases. (d) Grounded theory research a qualitative approach to generating a theory from the data that the researcher collects. e) Historical research research about events in the past. 2. 9. What is mixed rese arch, and what is an example of this kind of research? Mixed research (also commonly called mixed methods research) is research in which the researcher uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches in a single research study. Example study the members of the snake handling churches in the Southern Tennessee/West Georgia using participant observation and using quantitative measurement instruments to profile the participants on variables of interest.Both sorts of data will likely provide useful information. 2. 10. What are the three research paradigms in education and what are the major types of research in each of these paradigms? (Hint See Figure 2. 3 in your textbook. ) They are quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed research. Quantitative research has two major subtypes experimental and nonexperimental research qualitative research has five major subtypes phenomenology, ethnography, case study, grounded theory, and historical research.

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